REGAINE
R
TYPES OF PRIMITIVE REFLEX
Grasping reflex
Certain automatic reflexes are present early
in life before the baby becomes capable
ofvoluntary movement. These reflexes
disappear as the nervous system matures. For
about the first four months, any object placed
in the infant’s palm will be firmly grasped.
Tonic neck reflex
When the young baby turns the head, the arm, and
leg of that side are stretched outwhile on the other
side the arm and leg bend. This reflex normally
disappears after the first few months except in
premature babies. A strong reflex, persisting for
longer than three months, suggests brain damage.
Walking reflex
When the baby is held uprightwith a foot
touching the ground, a forward stepping
movement is made by each leg as the weight is
placed on the other foot. This occurs during the
first two months of life and is then lost.
Moro reflex
Ifthe baby’s head is momentarily left
unsupported, the arms will be swung outwards
and then brought together in an embracing
movement. Atthe same time the legs are
extended and the baby cries. This symmetrical
reflex disappears two or three months
after birth.
Rooting reflex
This reflex enables the baby to find the nipple. It
is evoked by touching the baby’s cheek near the
corner ofthe mouth. The baby’s head turns and
the mouth opens. The reflex is best shown if
tried when the baby is hungry.
f o o d s
c o n t a i n i n g
t h i s
s u b s t a n c e .
T h e
m a i n s o u r c e s o f p h y t a n i c a c i d a r e m e a t
f r o m a n i m a l s t h a t f e e d o n g r a s s ( c o w s ,
s h e e p , a n d g o a t s ) a n d d a i r y p r o d u c t s .
R e g a in e
A b r a n d n a m e f o r
m in o x id il.
R e g a i n e i s
u s e d a s a t o p i c a l
( a p p l i e d t o t h e s k i n )
l o t i o n i n t h e t r e a t m e n t o f m a l e - p a t t e r n
b a l d n e s s ( s e e
a lo p e c ia ).
re g re s s io n
A t e r m t h a t i s u s e d i n
p s y c h o a n a ly tic t h e -
o r y
t o d e s c r i b e t h e p r o c e s s o f r e t u r n i n g
t o a c h i l d h o o d l e v e l o f b e h a v i o u r , s u c h
a s t h u m b - s u c k i n g . ( S e e a l s o
fix a tio n .)
re g u rg ita tio n
A b a c k f l o w
o f f l u i d .
I n m e d i c i n e ,
t h e
t e r m i s c o m m o n l y u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e
r e t u r n o f s w a l l o w e d f o o d o r d r i n k f r o m
t h e
s t o m a c h
i n t o
t h e
o e s o p h a g u s
a n d
m o u t h .
T h e
t e r m
i s
a l s o
u s e d
t o
d e s c r i b e t h e b a c k f l o w o f b l o o d t h r o u g h
a
h e a rt v a lv e
t h a t
d o e s
n o t c l o s e f u l l y
b e c a u s e
o f
a
d i s o r d e r
s u c h
a s
m itra l
in c o m p e t e n c e .
( S e e a l s o
re flu x .)
re h a b ilita tio n
T r e a t m e n t a i m e d a t
e n a b l i n g
a
p e r s o n
t o
l i v e
a n
i n d e p e n d e n t
l i f e
f o l l o w i n g
i n j u r y
( s u c h
a s
s p in a l in ju r y ) ,
i l l n e s s
( s u c h a s a
s t r o k e ) , a lc o h o l d e p e n d e n c e ,
o r
d ru g d e p e n d e n c e .
T r e a t m e n t m a y i n c l u d e
p h y s io t h e ra p y , o c c u p a t io n a l th e ra p y , p s y -
c h o t h e ra p y ,
o r
s p e e c h th e ra p y .
I n a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c e n t r e , a p e r s o n ’s
d is a b ilit y
o r d e p e n d e n c e i s a s s e s s e d b y a
d o c t o r w h o s p e c i a l i z e s i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n
m e d i c i n e , a n d a t r e a t m e n t p r o g r a m m e
i s
d e v e l o p e d .
I n d u s t r i a l
r e h a b i l i t a t i o n
c e n t r e s p r o v i d e r e t r a i n i n g f o r t h o s e w h o
c a n n o t
r e t u r n
t o
t h e i r
p r e v i o u s
j o b .
D r u g a n d a l c o h o l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c e n t r e s
h e l p p e o p l e t h r o u g h
w ith d ra w a l
a n d p r o -
v i d e
p s y c h o l o g i c a l
s u p p o r t
t o
r e d u c e
t h e r i s k o f a r e l a p s e ( t h e r e c u r r e n c e o f a
c o n d i t i o n a f t e r a p p a r e n t r e c o v e r y ) .
re h y d ra tio n , o ra l
S e e
re h y d ra t io n th era p y.
re h y d ra tio n th e ra p y
T h e t r e a t m e n t o f
d e h y d ra tio n
b y a d m i n -
i s t e r i n g f l u i d s , s a l t s , a n d s u g a r s u s u a l l y
b y m o u t h ( o r a l r e h y d r a t i o n ) o r b y
in t ra -
v e n o u s in f u s io n .
T h e
a m o u n t
o f
f l u i d
n e e d e d d e p e n d s o n t h e p a t i e n t ’s a g e a n d
w e i g h t a n d t h e d e g r e e o f d e h y d r a t i o n .
M i l d
d e h y d r a t i o n ,
w h i c h
o c c u r s
i n
m a n y y o u n g
c h i l d r e n w i t h
d i a r r h o e a ,
c a n u s u a l l y
b e
t r e a t e d w i t h
o r a l s o l u -
t i o n s ,
w h i c h
a r e
a v a i l a b l e
a s
a n
e f f e r -
v e s c e n t t a b l e t o r p o w d e r t o b e m a d e u p
a t h o m e . I n s e v e r e d e h y d r a t i o n , o r i f t h e
p a t i e n t
c a n n o t
t a k e
f l u i d s
b y
m o u t h
b e c a u s e o f n a u s e a o r v o m i t i n g , a n
in t ra -
v e n o u s in f u s io n
o f
s a lin e
a n d / o r
g lu c o s e
s o l u t i o n m a y b e g i v e n i n h o s p i t a l .
re im p la n ta tio n , d e n ta l
T h e r e p l a c e m e n t o f a
to o th
i n i t s s o c k e t
a f t e r a n a c c i d e n t s o t h a t i t c a n b e c o m e
r e a t t a c h e d
t o
s u p p o r t i n g
t i s s u e s .
T h e
f r o n t t e e t h a r e t h o s e t h a t a r e m o s t c o m
-
m o n l y r e i m p l a n t e d .
T h e
t o o t h
n e e d s
t o
b e
r e i m p l a n t e d
s o o n a f t e r t h e a c c i d e n t ; i t i s t h e n m
a i n -
t a i n e d w i t h
t h e
h e l p
o f a
s p l i n t
( s e e
s p lin t in g
,
d e n ta l
)
w h i l e
h e a l i n g
t a k e s
p l a c e .
K e e p i n g
t h e
t o o t h
s t e r i l e
a n d
m o i s t ( w i t h s a l i v a o r m i l k , f o r e x a m p l e )
i n c r e a s e s t h e c h a n c e s o f s u c c e s s . H e a l -
i n g m a y t a k e s e v e r a l w e e k s .
R e ite r’s s y n d ro m e
A c o n d i t i o n i n w h i c h t h e r e i s a c o m
-
b i n a t i o n
o f
u re th rit is , re a c tiv e a rth rit is ,
a n d
c o n ju n c tiv itis .
T h e r e
m a y
a l s o
b e
u v e itis .
R e i t e r ’s s y n d r o m e i s m
o r e c o m
-
m
o n i n m e n t h a n i n w o m e n .
R e i t e r ’s
s y n d r o m e
i s
c a u s e d
b y
a n
im m u n e r e s p o n s e
a n d
u s u a l l y
d e v e l o p s
o n l y i n p e o p l e w i t h a g e n e t i c p r e d i s p o -
s i t i o n . M
o s t p a t i e n t s h a v e t h e H L A - B 2 7
654
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