ROUNDWORMS
b o n d in g , d e n t a l),
b y
f i t t i n g
a n
a r t i f i -
c i a l
c r o w n
( s e e
c ro w n , d e n t a l),
o r
b y
b l e a c h i n g ( s e e
b le a c h in g , d e n t a l).
ro o tin g re fle x
A n a u t o m a t i c r e f l e x a c t i o n s e e n i n n e w -
b o r n i n f a n t s
( s e e
re fle x , p r im it iv e ) .
T h e
r o o t i n g r e f l e x , w h i c h c a n b e e v o k e d b y
t o u c h i n g t h e b a b y ’s c h e e k w i t h t h e f i n -
g e r t i p ,
e n a b l e s
t h e
b a b y
t o
f i n d
t h e
m
o t h e r ’s n i p p l e t o s u c k l e .
ro o t p a in
P a i n r e s u l t i n g f r o m d a m a g e t o , p r e s s u r e
o n , o r d i s e a s e o f t h e r o o t s o f a
s e n s o ry
n e rv e .
R o o t p a i n i s f e l t i n a r e a s o f s k i n
s u p p l i e d b y t h e a f f e c t e d n e r v e r o o t s .
R o rs c h a c h te st
A p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t b a s e d o n a p e r s o n ’s
r e s p o n s e s t o a s e t o f i n k - b l o t p i c t u r e s .
T h e t e s t w a s i n t e n d e d t o r e v e a l a n i n d i -
v i d u a l ’s
a t t i t u d e s ,
c o n f l i c t s ,
a n d
e m
o -
t i o n s , b u t i s n o w r a r e l y u s e d .
( S e e a l s o
p e rs o n a lit y te s ts .)
ro s a c e a
A
c h r o n i c
s k in
d i s o r d e r
i n
w h i c h
t h e
n o s e a n d c h e e k s a r e a b n o r m a l l y r e d . T h e
c a u s e i s
u s u a l l y
u n k n o w n .
R o s a c e a i s
a g g r a v a t e d b y t h e
u s e
o f
c o rtic o s t e ro id
c r e a m s . T h e d i s o r d e r i s m o s t c o m
m o n
a m o n g m i d d l e - a g e d w o m e n .
R o s a c e a u s u a l l y b e g i n s w i t h t e m p o r a r y
f l u s h e s , b u t m a y d e v e l o p i n t o p e r m a n e n t
r e d n e s s o f t h e s k i n , s o m e t i m e s a c c o m p a -
n i e d
b y
acne
- l i k e
p u s t u l e s .
I n
e l d e r l y
m e n , i t m a y l e a d t o
rh in o p h y m a
( b u l b o u s
s w e l l i n g o f t h e n o s e ) .
T r e a t m e n t i n c l u d e s o r a l
te tra c y c lin e
o r
t o p i c a l ( a p p l i e d t o t h e s k i n )
m e t ro n id a -
z o le .
R o s a c e a t e n d s t o r e c u r f o r f i v e t o
t e n y e a r s b e f o r e d i s a p p e a r i n g .
ro s e o la in fa n tu m
A c o m
m
o n i n f e c t i o u s d i s e a s e , c a u s e d b y
a
t y p e
o f
h e rp e s
v i r u s ,
t h a t
m a i n l y
a f f e c t s c h i l d r e n b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f s i x
m o n t h s a n d t w o y e a r s .
R o s e o l a i n f a n -
t u m i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a n a b r u p t o n s e t
o f i r r i t a b i l i t y a n d f e v e r . T h e c h i l d ’s t e m
-
p e r a t u r e d r o p s t o n o r m a l a f t e r f o u r o r
f i v e d a y s a n d , a t a b o u t t h e s a m e t i m e , a
r a s h a p p e a r s o n t h e t r u n k , o f t e n s p r e a d -
i n g
t o t h e n e c k ,
f a c e ,
a n d l i m b s . T h e
r a s h u s u a l l y c l e a r s u p w i t h i n t w o d a y s .
O t h e r s y m p t o m s m a y i n c l u d e a s o r e
t h r o a t a n d e n l a r g e m e n t o f
ly m p h n o d e s
i n t h e n e c k . C o n v u l s i o n s ( s e e
c o n v u ls io n ,
f e b r ile )
m a y o c c u r d u r i n g t h e f e v e r , b u t
t h e r e a r e n o s e r i o u s e f f e c t s .
T h e
o n l y t r e a t m e n t f o r r o s e o l a i n f a n -
t u m i s t o k e e p t h e c h i l d c o o l a n d g i v e
p a ra c e t a m o l
t o r e d u c e t h e f e v e r .
ro s e s p o ts
A r a s h o f p i n k o r r e d s p o t s t h a t e r u p t s o n
t h e s k i n o f t h e c h e s t , t h e a b d o m e n , a n d
s o m e t i m e s t h e t h i g h s i n t h e s e c o n d w e e k
o f
ty p h o id fev er.
R o s e s p o t s l a s t a f e w d a y s .
ro s ig lita z o n e
A n o r a l h y p o g l y c a e m i c d r u g ( s e e
h y p o g ly -
c a e m ic s, o ra l
) t h a t i s u s e d i n c o m b i n a t i o n
w i t h o t h e r
o r a l h y p o g l y c a e m i c s
( e i t h e r
m e tfo rm in
o r
a
s u l p h o n y l u r e a )
i n
t h e
t r e a t m e n t
o f
t y p e
2
d ia b e te s m e llitu s.
R o s i g l i t a z o n e a c t s b y r e d u c i n g p e r i p h e r a l
in s u lin
r e s i s t a n c e . S i d e e f f e c t s o f r o s i g l i t a -
z o n e
m a y
i n c l u d e
g a s t r o i n t e s t i n a l
d i s -
t u r b a n c e s , w e i g h t g a i n , a n d
a n a e m ia
( a
r e d u c e d l e v e l o f t h e o x y g e n - c a r r y i n g p i g -
m e n t h a e m o g l o b i n i n t h e b l o o d ) .
ro ta to r c u ff
A
r e i n f o r c i n g
s t r u c t u r e
a r o u n d
t h e
s h o u l d e r
jo in t ,
c o m p o s e d o f f o u r m u s c l e
t e n d o n s
t h a t
m e r g e
w i t h
t h e
f i b r o u s
c a p s u l e e n c l o s i n g t h e j o i n t .
T h e r o t a t o r c u f f m a y b e t o r n a s t h e
r e s u l t o f a f a l l . A p a r t i a l t e a r m a y c a u s e
p a in f u l a rc s y n d ro m e
( p a i n w h e n t h e a r m
i s l i f t e d a w a y f r o m t h e b o d y i n a p a r t i c -
u l a r
a r c ) .
A
c o m p l e t e
t e a r
s e r i o u s l y
l i m i t s
t h e p e r s o n ’s a b i l i t y t o r a i s e t h e
a r m
a n d , i n
c a s e s
o f s e v e r e
d i s a b i l i t y ,
m a y r e q u i r e s u r g i c a l r e p a i r .
ro ta v iru s
A t y p e o f
v iru s
t h a t i s a c o m
m o n c a u s e
o f
g a s t ro e n t e rit is ;
r o t a v i r u s
p a r t i c u l a r l y
a f f e c t s y o u n g c h i l d r e n .
ro u g h a g e
S e e
f ib re , d ie t a ry
.
ro u n d w o rm s
A c l a s s o f e l o n g a t e d , c y l i n d r i c a l w o r m s ,
a l s o k n o w n a s n e m a t o d e s .
S o m e t y p e s
o f r o u n d w o r m a r e h u m a n
p a ra s it e s
( t h e
t a b l e b e l o w s u m m a r i z e s t h e m a i n o n e s ) .
T h e
a d u l t
w o r m s
u s u a l l y
i n h a b i t
t h e
h u m a n i n t e s t i n e s ,
o f t e n w i t h o u t c a u s -
i n g s y m p t o m s . S o m e t i m e s w o r m l a r v a e
p a s s
t h r o u g h o t h e r p a r t s
o f t h e b o d y ,
w h i c h m a y c a u s e s y m p t o m s .
T h e o n l y c o m
m o n r o u n d w o r m
d i s -
e a s e i n t h e U K i s
th re a d w o rm in fe s ta tio n ,
w h i c h m a i n l y a f f e c t s c h i l d r e n ; o c c a s i o n -
a l l y ,
a s c a ria s is , w h ip w o rm in fe s t a t io n ,
a n d
t o x o c a ria s is
o c c u r .
S o m e
p e o p l e
r e t u r n
f r o m a b r o a d w i t h
h o o k w o rm in f e s t a t io n
.
I n
t r o p i c a l
c o u n t r i e s ,
r o u n d w o r m
d i s e a s e s a r e m
u c h m
o r e c o m
m o n ; t h e y
i n c l u d e t h o s e m
e n t i o n e d a b o v e a s w e l l
a s
s t r o n g y lo id ia s is
,
g u in e a w o rm d is e a s e
,
a n d v a r i o u s t y p e s o f
f ila r ia s is .
F o r t h e m
a j o r i t y o f r o u n d w o r m i n - f e s -
DISEASES CAUSED BY ROUNDWORMS (NEMATODES)
Disease
Adult length
Distribution
How acquired
Ascariasis
(common roundworm)
15-38 cm
Worldwide
By swallowing worm eggs that have
contaminated food or fingers
Enterobiasis
(threadworm)
0.2-1.5 cm
Worldwide
By swallowing worm eggs that have
contaminated fingers
Trichuriasis
(whipworm)
2.5-5 cm
Worldwide
By swallowing worm eggs that have
contaminated food or fingers
Ancylostomiasis
(hookworm)
1.5 cm
Tropics
By penetration of skin of feet by
worm larvae in soil
Strongyloidiasis
0.2 cm
Tropics
By penetration of skin of feet by
worm larvae in soil
Toxocariasis
Several cm
Worldwide
By swallowing worm eggs from dirt
or dog faeces
Trichinosis
(porkworm)
0.1 cm
Worldwide
By eating undercooked pork
containing encysted worm larvae
Filariasis
2-50 cm
Tropics
By mosquito and other insect bites
R
669
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