SALICYLATE DRUGS
s a c
A b a g l i k e o r g a n o r b o d y s t r u c t u r e .
s a c c h a rin
A n
a rtific ia l s w e e te n e r.
s a c r a lg ia
P a i n i n t h e
s a c ru m
( t h e t r i a n g u l a r s p i n a l
b o n e b e l o w t h e l u m b a r
v e rte b ra e )
t h a t i s
c a u s e d b y p r e s s u r e
o n a s p i n a l n e r v e .
S a c r a l g i a i s u s u a l l y t h e r e s u l t o f a
d is c
p ro la p s e .
R a r e l y , i t m a y b e d u e t o
b o n e
c a n c e r.
( S e e a l s o
b a c k p a in .)
s a c ra liz a t io n
F u s i o n o f t h e f i f t h ( l o w e s t ) l u m b a r
v e r-
te b ra
w i t h
t h e
u p p e r
s a c ru m
( t h e
t r i -
a n g u l a r s p i n a l b o n e t h a t i s
p o s i t i o n e d
b e l o w t h e l u m b a r v e r t e b r a e ) . S a c r a l i z a -
t i o n m a y b e p r e s e n t a t b i r t h , i n w h i c h
c a s e
t h e r e
a r e
u s u a l l y
n o
s y m p t o m s .
S a c r a l i z a t i o n
m a y
a l s o
b e
p r o d u c e d
d e l i b e r a t e l y b y a s u r g i c a l p r o c e d u r e f o r
t h e
t r e a t m e n t
o f
a
d is c p r o la p s e
o r
s p o n d y lo lis t h e s is .
( S e e a l s o
s p in a l f u s io n .)
s a c r o ilia c jo in t
O n e
o f a p a i r o f r i g i d
jo in t s
o n e a c h
s i d e o f t h e b o d y t h a t f o r m a n i n t e r f a c e
b e t w e e n
t h e
s a c ru m
( t h e
t r i a n g u l a r
s p i n a l b o n e b e l o w t h e l u m b a r
v e rte b ra e
)
a n d t h e
iliu m
( h i p b o n e ) . T h e b o n y s u r -
f a c e s w i t h i n t h e
j o i n t a r e
l i n e d w i t h
c a r t i l a g e a n d h a v e a s m a l l a m
o u n t
o f
s y n o v i a l
f l u i d
b e t w e e n
t h e m .
S t r o n g
l i g a m e n t s
p o s i t i o n e d
b e t w e e n
t h e
s a c r u m a n d i l i u m a l l o w o n l y m
i n i m a l
m o v e m e n t a t t h e j o i n t .
T h e s a c r o i l i a c j o i n t c a n b e s t r a i n e d ,
u s u a l l y
b y
c h i l d b i r t h
o r
o v e r s t r i d i n g
w h e n
r u n n i n g .
S u c h
a n
i n j u r y
c a u s e s
p a i n
i n t h e
l o w e r
b a c k a n d b u t t o c k s .
T h e
s a c r o i l i a c
j o i n t
c a n
a l s o
b e c o m e
i n f l a m e d ( s e e
s a c r o iliit is ).
s a c r o iliit is
I n f l a m m a t i o n o f a
s a c r o ilia c jo in t ,
o n e o f
a p a i r
o f j o i n t s
s i t u a t e d
b e t w e e n
e a c h
s i d e o f t h e
s a c ru m
( t h e t r i a n g u l a r s p i n a l
b o n e b e l o w t h e l u m b a r v e r t e b r a e )
a n d
e a c h
iliu m
( h i p b o n e ) .
S a c r o i l i i t i s c a n b e d u e t o v a r i o u s d i s o r d e r s ,
s u c h
a s
a n k y lo s in g s p o n d y lit is ,
R e ite r’s
s y n d ro m e , r h e u m a t o id a rth rit is ,
o r a r t h r i t i s
a s s o c i a t e d w i t h
psoriasis
. T h e m a i n s y m p -
t o m i s p a i n i n t h e l o w e r b a c k , b u t t o c k s ,
g r o i n , a n d b a c k o f t h e t h i g h . T r e a t m e n t
i s w i t h
n o n s te ro id a l a n ti-in fla m m a to ry d ru g s .
s a c ru m
T h e l a r g e t r i a n g u l a r b o n e i n t h e l o w e r
s p in e . T h e
s a c r u m l i e s i n t h e c e n t r e b a c k
o f t h e
p e lv is .
I t s b r o a d u p p e r p a r t a r t i c u -
l a t e s
w i t h
t h e
f i f t h
( l o w e s t )
l u m b a r
v e rte b ra ,
a n d i t s n a r r o w l o w e r p a r t w i t h
t h e
c o cc y x .
T h e s i d e s a r e c o n n e c t e d b y
t h e
s a c r o ilia c jo in t s
t o
e a c h
iliu m
( h i p
b o n e ) .
D i s o r d e r s
a f f e c t i n g
t h e s a c r u m
i n c l u d e
s a c ra lg ia , s p o n d y lo lis t h e s is ,
a n d
s a c ra liz a t io n .
( S e e a l s o
s p in e , d is o r d e r s o f.)
SAD
T h e
a b b r e v i a t i o n
f o r
s e a s o n a l a ffe c tiv e
d is o r d e r
.
s a d is m
T h e
t e n d e n c y
o r
p r a c t i c e
o f d e r i v i n g
p l e a s u r e ,
p a r t i c u l a r l y
s e x u a l
p l e a s u r e ,
f r o m
i n f l i c t i n g
p a i n
o r
s u f f e r i n g
o n
o t h e r s . ( S e e a l s o
s a d o m a s o c h is m .)
s a d o m a s o c h is m
T h e t e n d e n c y o r p r a c t i c e o f d e r i v i n g s e x -
u a l p l e a s u r e b y i n f l i c t i n g p a i n ( s e e
s a d is m
)
a n d r e c e i v i n g a b u s e ( s e e
m a s o c h is m );
o n e
STRUCTURE OF THE SACRUM
The sacrum consists of
five vertebrae (spinal
bones) that are fused
together to form a single
solid structure.
Fifth lum bar
vertebra
Site o f attachment
to pelvis
Sacrum
Sacral canal
Coccyx
Side view
m
4
Sacral foramina
Backview
t r a i t u s u a l l y p r e d o m i n a t e s . I t a l s o d e s c r i b e s
a s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i n w h i c h o n e p a r t n e r
i s v e r y d o m i n a n t a n d o n e i s s u b m i s s i v e .
s a fe p e rio d
S e e
c o n tra c e p t io n , n a tu ra l m e t h o d s o f
.
s a f e r s e x
P r e v e n t i v e m e a s u r e s t h a t a r e u n d e r t a k e n
t o r e d u c e t h e r i s k o f
s e x u a lly tra n s m itte d
in fe c tio n s .
T h e s e
i n c l u d e
t a k i n g
s i m p l e
p r e c a u t i o n s s u c h a s m a i n t a i n i n g a m o n o -
g a m o u s s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s o m
e -
o n e w h o i s f r e e o f i n f e c t i o n ; a v o i d i n g
c a s u a l s e x o r s e x w i t h m u l t i p l e p a r t n e r s ;
a v o i d i n g a c t i v i t i e s t h a t c a n d a m a g e t h e
s k i n
o r
m u c o u s
m e m b r a n e s ,
o r
t h a t
i n v o l v e
c o n t a c t w i t h b o d y
f l u i d s ;
a n d
u s i n g a
c o n d o m .
s a lb u ta m o l
A
b ro n c h o d ila t o r d ru g
t h a t i s u s e d i n t h e
t r e a t m e n t o f
a sth m a ,
c h r o n i c
b ro n c h it is ,
a n d
e m p h y s e m a .
I t
i s a l s o
o c c a s i o n a l l y
u s e d t o h e l p p r e v e n t p r e m a t u r e l a b o u r
( s e e
p re m a tu rity ).
s a lic y la t e d ru g s
A g r o u p o f d r u g s , i n c l u d i n g
a s p irin
a n d
b e n o rila t e ,
t h a t h a v e a n t i - i n f l a m m a t o r y ,
f e v e r - r e d u c i n g ,
a n d
m i l d
a n a lg e s ic
a c t i o n . A n o v e r d o s e o f s a l i c y l a t e d r u g s
c a u s e s
h y p e rv e n tila tio n , tin n itu s ,
s w e a t i n g ,
a b n o r m a l b l e e d i n g , b i o c h e m
i c a l d i s t u r -
b a n c e s ,
a n d ,
i n s e v e r e
c a s e s ,
l e a d s
t o
c o n v u l s i o n s a n d c o m a .
S
671
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