SALICYLIC ACID
SAFER SEX: HOW TO USE A CONDOM
Using a condom is not a guarantee against transmission of
HIV (the AIDS virus) or other sexually transmitted infections,
but it does reduce the risks substantially. Condoms that are
prelubricated with a spermicide offer extra protection against
pregnancy. Hypoallergenic condoms are available for people
who are sensitive to rubber. In addition, condoms are
available that are made from a thicker type of rubber and
these should be used during anal intercourse.
I
The penis should be fully erect
before the condom is put on.
The condom should be in place
before any vaginal or anal
penetration by the penis and
before oral sex.
2
Use a brand of condom that
conforms to British Standards.
Do not use one that has no teat, is
beyond its “use by” date or appears
to be defective. Open the condom
carefully to avoid tearing it.
3
The teat-end should be
squeezed so it is free ofair and
the condom unrolled fully over the
penis. Do not stretch the condom
tightly because a tight condom is
more likely to burst.
4
The penis should be withdrawn
soon after ejaculation. During
withdrawal, the base ofthe
condom should be held in order
to prevent the semen from spilling
outofthe condom.
s a lic y lic a c id
A
k e ra to ly tic d ru g
t h a t
i s
u s e d t o
t r e a t
s k i n d i s o r d e r s s u c h a s
d e rm a titis , e c z e m a ,
p s o r ia s is , d a n d ru ff, ic h th y o s is , a c n e , w a rts,
( i n c l u d i n g v e r r u c a s ) a n d c a l l o s i t i e s ( s e e
c a llu s, s k in ) .
S a l i c y l i c a c i d i s a l s o s o m
e -
t i m e s u s e d t o t r e a t
f u n g a l in fe c tio n s .
S i d e
e f f e c t s a r e f e w ; a n d t h e y
m a y i n c l u d e
i r r i t a t i o n a n d d r y n e s s o f t h e s k i n .
s a lin e
A s o l u t i o n
o f s a l t
( s o d i u m
c h l o r i d e ) .
S o l u t i o n s w i t h t h e s a m e c o n c e n t r a t i o n
o f s a l t a s b o d y f l u i d s a r e k n o w n a s n o r -
m a l ,
o r p h y s i o l o g i c a l ,
s a l i n e .
S a l i n e i s
u s e d i n c o n t a c t l e n s s o l u t i o n s a n d m a y
b e
g i v e n b y
in t ra v e n o u s in f u s io n
t o
r e -
p l a c e f l u i d s l o s t i n s e v e r e d e h y d r a t i o n .
s a liv a
T h e s l i g h t l y a l k a l i n e f l u i d s e c r e t e d i n t o
t h e m o u t h b y t h e
s a liv a r y g la n d s
a n d t h e
m u c o u s m e m b ra n e s
l i n i n g
t h e
m o u t h .
S a l i v a
c o n t a i n s
t h e
d i g e s t i v e
e n z y m e
a m y l a s e ,
w h i c h
h e l p s
t o
b r e a k
d o w n
c a r b o h y d r a t e s i n f o o d . I n a d d i t i o n , s a l i -
v a
k e e p s
t h e
m o u t h
m o i s t ,
l u b r i c a t e s
f o o d t o a i d s w a l l o w i n g , a n d h e l p s t h e
t o n g u e a n d m o u t h t o r e g i s t e r
t a s t e
.
s a liv a r y g la n d s
T h r e e p a i r s o f g l a n d s t h a t s e c r e t e
s a liv a
,
v i a d u c t s , i n t o t h e m o u t h .
T h e l a r g e s t , t h e
p a r o t id g la n d s ,
l i e o n
e a c h s i d e o f t h e j a w , j u s t b e l o w a n d i n
f r o n t
o f t h e
e a r s ;
t h e
d u c t s
o f t h e s e
g l a n d s
r u n
f o r w a r d s
a n d
i n w a r d s
t o
o p e n i n s i d e t h e c h e e k s .
T h e s u b l i n g u a l g l a n d s l i e o n t h e f l o o r o f
t h e
f r o n t
o f t h e
m o u t h ,
w h e r e
t h e y
f o r m a l o w r i d g e o n e a c h s i d e o f t h e
f r e n u l u m
( t h e
b a n d
o f
t i s s u e
t h a t
a t t a c h e s t h e u n d e r s i d e o f t h e t o n g u e t o
t h e f l o o r o f t h e m
o u t h . T h i s r i d g e h a s a
r o w o f s m a l l o p e n i n g s t h r o u g h w h i c h
s a l i v a i s e x c r e t e d .
T h e s u b m a n d i b u l a r g l a n d s l i e t o w a r d s
t h e
b a c k
o f t h e
m o u t h ,
c l o s e
t o
t h e
s i d e s
o f t h e j a w . T h e i r
d u c t s r u n
f o r -
w a r d s
a n d
o p e n u n d e r
t h e
t o n g u e
a t
t w o s m a l l s w e l l i n g s , o n e o n e a c h s i d e
o f t h e f r e n u l u m .
DISORDERS
T h e p a r o t i d g l a n d s c a n b e i n f e c t e d w i t h
t h e
m u m p s
v i r u s ,
a n d s t o n e s
( c a l c u l i )
c a n f o r m i n a s a l i v a r y g l a n d o r d u c t . A
s t o n e i n a d u c t c a u s e s a s w e l l i n g t h a t
e n l a r g e s
d u r i n g
e a t i n g
b e c a u s e
s a l i v a
f l o w i s b l o c k e d ; i t m a y a l s o c a u s e p a i n .
S u r g i c a l r e m o v a l o f a s t o n e f r o m a d u c t
i s
u s u a l l y
s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d ,
b u t
i f t h e
s t o n e
i s
w i t h i n
t h e
g l a n d ,
t h e
e n t i r e
g l a n d m a y h a v e t o b e r e m o v e d .
P o o r
o ra l h y g ie n e
m a y a l l o w b a c t e r i a l
i n f e c t i o n i n a g l a n d , s o m e t i m
e s l e a d i n g
t o
a n
a b s c e s s . T u m o u r s
m a y
d e v e l o p ;
h o w e v e r ,
t h e y
a r e
r a r e ,
e x c e p t
f o r
a
t y p e
o f p a r o t i d t u m o u r
t h a t
i s
s l o w -
g r o w i n g , n o n c a n c e r o u s , a n d p a i n l e s s .
I n s u f f i c i e n t
s a l i v a t i o n
c a u s e s
a
d r y
m o u t h
( s e e
m o u th , d r y ).
T h i s p r o b l e m
m a y b e d u e t o
d e h y d ra tio n
o r
S jo g r e n ’s
s y n d ro m e ,
o r
i t
m a y
o c c u r
a s
a
s i d e
e f f e c t o f c e r t a i n d r u g s .
s a liv a t io n , e x c e s s iv e
T h e
p r o d u c t i o n
o f
t o o
m
u c h
s a liv a
.
E x c e s s s a l i v a t i o n s o m e t i m e s o c c u r s d u r -
i n g
p r e g n a n c y a n d p r i o r t o v o m i t i n g .
O t h e r c a u s e s i n c l u d e m o u t h p r o b l e m s
s u c h a s i r r i t a t i o n o f t h e m o u t h l i n i n g ,
g in g iv it is
( g u m i n f l a m m
a t i o n ) , o r
m o u th
u lc e rs ;
d i g e s t i v e t r a c t d i s o r d e r s s u c h a s
p e p t ic u lc e rs
a n d
o e s o p h a g itis ;
a n d n e r -
v o u s s y s t e m d i s o r d e r s s u c h a s
P a rk in s o n ’s
d is e a s e .
I n s o m e c a s e s , i t m a y b e r e d u c e d
b y
a n tic h o lin e rg ic d ru g s .
672
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