(kneecap), are now usually performed
substantially reduces the amount
recovery time required.
The brand name of an
The junction point of two or more
A form of assisted conception in which
semen is introduced artificially into the
uterus, instead of by sexual intercourse,
with the aim of inducing conception
There are two types of artificial insemi-
nation: AIH, artificial insemination with
the semen of the woman’s male partner;
and AID, insemination with a donor’s
sperm. AIH is usually used for couples
who are unable to have intercourse, or
if the man has a low sperm count or a
low volume of ejaculate. It is also used
when a man’s semen has been stored
prior to his having treatment (such as
chemotherapy) that has made him sterile.
AID is available to couples if the man is
infertile or a carrier of a genetic disease.
It may also be used by a woman who
wants children but has no male partner.
HOW IT IS DONE
Artificial insemination is carried out at
centres that are specially staffed and
semen, to carry out the insemination,
and to give counselling before and after
screened for a wide variety of physical
and mental disorders.
Insemination is performed by inject-
woman’s cervix using a small syringe.
The procedure is timed to coincide
natural ovulation (the devel-
opment and release of an egg from the
ovary), or it may be combined with
treatment to stimulate ovulation.
The common name for the machine
artificial rupture of membranes
A preparation used to relieve a persis-
tently dry mouth, which may be a side
effect of certain drugs or
may be due to
autoimmune disorder in which the im-
mune system attacks the body’s own
tissues). Artificial saliva, as a spray, gel,
or pastilles, is formulated to resemble
natural saliva as closely as possible.
Synthetic substitutes for sugar that are
used by people on slimming diets and
by the food industry.
Saccharin and aspartame are often
controlled diets. They are, however, of
questionable value because the
compensates for the lack of calories
from sugar, therefore other foods are
eaten to maintain the calorie intake.
Preparations that are used to supplem-
ent tear production in disorders, such as
that cause dry
eye and to relieve irritation.
One of two pyramid-shaped cartilages
that form part of the
A variety of diseases that are caused by
inhalation of asbestos fibres. Asbestos is
a fibrous mineral formerly used as a
heat- and fire-resistant insulating mat-
erial. There are three main types of
asbestos fibre: white, which is widely
used, blue, and brown. Blue and brown
asbestos. The use of all types is now
In asbestosis, widespread fine scarring
occurs in the lungs. The disease causes
breathlessness and a dry cough, eventu-
ally leading to severe disability and death.
Asbestosis develops mostly in industrial
workers who have been heavily exposed
to asbestos. The period from initial
exposure to development of the disease
Electron micrograph of asbestos fibre in lung
An inhaled asbestos fibre impales and kills a
macrophage (a scavenger cell that would normally
engulf and destroy foreign particles in the lungs).
is usually at least 20 years. Diagnosis is
Asbestosis increases the
risk of developing
is a cancerous tumour
(the membrane surround-
ing the lungs) or the
membrane lining the abdominal cav-
ity). In the pleura, mesotheliomas cause
pain and breathlessness; in the peri-
toneum they cause enlargement of the
The condition cannot be treated and
usually leads to death within one or two
years. The average interval between ini-
tial exposure to asbestos and death is
between 20 and 3 0 years. Mesothe-
lioma affects people who have been
exposed to blue or brown asbestos.
Diffuse pleural thickening is a condi-
tion in which the outer and inner layers
of the pleura become thickened, and
excess fluid may accumulate in the cav-
ity between them. This combination
restricts the ability of the lungs to
expand, resulting in shortness of breath.
The condition may develop even after
short exposure to asbestos.
Infestation with the roundworm ASCARIS
LUMBRICOIDES, which lives in the small
intestine of its human host. Ascariasis is
common worldwide, especially in the
tropics. One or several worms may be
present, but symptoms usually only
occur with heavy infestation.