STENT
s t a in in g
The process of dyeing specimens of
cells,
tissues,
or
microorganisms
to
make them clearly visible or easily iden-
tifiable under a
m ic r o s c o p e
.
s ta m m e rin g
See
s t u t t e rin g
.
S t a n fo rd -B in e t te st
A type of
in t e llig e n c e te s t
.
s ta n o z o lo l
A type of anabolic steroid drug (see
s t e ro id s , a n a b o lic
) .
s ta p e d e c to m y
An operation on the
e a r
to replace the
s ta p e s
(the
innermost
of the
three
sound-conducting bones in the middle
ear) with a device that takes over the
bone’s function. It is used to treat
d e a f-
n e s s
due to
o t o s c le r o s is
.
s ta p e s
The innermost of the three tiny, sound-
conducting bones in the middle ear.The
stapes is the smallest bone in the body.
Its head articulates with the
in c u s
and its
base fits into the oval window in the
wall of the inner ear.
In
o t o s c le r o s is
,
the stapes becomes
fixed and cannot transmit sound to the
inner ear. The resultant hearing loss can
be treated by
s ta p e d e c t o m y
.
s ta p h y lo c o c c a l in fe c tio n s
Infections caused by
b a c t e ria
of the
genus S
t a p h t i o c o c c u s
. Different species
of staphylococci are responsible for a
range of disorders, including skin infec-
tions such as
p u s t u le s
,
a b s c e s s e s
,
and
b o ils
,
and a rash in newborn babies (see
n e c ro ly s is , toxic e p id e rm a l
) ;
p n e u m o n ia
;
toxic
s h o c k s y n d ro m e
in menstruating women;
u rin a ry tract in fe c tio n
;
and
f o o d p o is o n in g
.
If
the bacteria enter the circulation, they
may cause
s e p t ic a e m ia
or
s e p t ic s h o c k
,
infectious
a r t h r it is
,
o s t e o m y e lit is
,
or bac-
terial
e n d o c a r d it is
.
Staphylococcus aureus
A species of S
t a p h t i o c o c c u s
bacterium
that produces toxins, causing a range of
s ta p h y lo c o c c a l in f e c t io n s
.
s t a p lin g
A surgical procedure to treat severe
o b e -
s it y
,
in w hich the
s to m a c h
is partitioned
using surgical staples, to leave only a
small volume for digestion and food
storage. Staples are also used for
s u t u r in g
.
s ta rc h
See
c a rb o h y d ra t e s
.
s ta rt le re fle x
A reflex action seen in newborn babies
that is similar to the
M o ro re fle x
.
s ta rv a tio n
A condition that results from lack of
food over a long period and results in
weight loss, changes in
m e t a b o lis m
(the
body’s chemical processes) and extreme
hunger. (See also
a n o re x ia n e r v o s a
;
f a s t -
in g
;
n u t rit io n a l d is o r d e r s
. )
s t a s is
Slowing down or cessation of flow.
s t a s is u lc e r
An open sore that develops on the lower
leg (see
le g u lc e r
)
as a result of poor
blood flow in that area.
s ta tin s
A type of
lip id - lo w e r in g d ru g
used to treat
high blood levels of
c h o le s t e r o l
,
or to
lower blood lipid (fat) levels in people
with
c o ro n a ry a rte ry d is e a s e
.
s t a t is t ic s , m e d ic a l
The collection and analysis of numerical
data that relates to medicine. Informa-
tion on the
in c id e n c e
and
p re v a le n c e
of
various
conditions
is
an
important
aspect of medical statistics.
s t a t is t ic s , v ita l
Assessment of the health of a country’s
population, w hich relies on the collec-
tion of data on birth and death rates and
on causes of death.
s ta tu s a s th m a tic u s
A severe and prolonged
a s th m a
attack.
This condition is potentially life-threat-
ening and needs urgent treatment.
s ta tu s e p ile p t ic u s
Prolonged or repeated epileptic seiz-
ures in which there is no recovery of
consciousness between the attacks. Status
epilepticus
is
a
medical
emergency,
w hich may be fatal if it is not treated
promptly. It is more likely to occur in
people with epilepsy if
a n tic o n v u ls a n t
d ru g s
are taken erratically or are w ith-
drawn suddenly. (See also
e p ile p s y
. )
S T D s
The abbreviation for sexually transmit-
ted diseases; another name for
s e x u a lly
t ra n s m it t e d in f e c t io n s
.
s t e a l s y n d ro m e , s u b c la v ia n
See
s u b c la v ia n s te a l s y n d r o m e
.
ste a m in h a la tio n
A method of relieving some of the
symptoms of colds, sinusitis, and laryn-
gitis by breathing in vapour from a
bowl of hot water. The moisture loosens
secretions in the nose and throat, mak-
ing them easier to clear.
s te a to rrh o e a
The presence of excessive fat in the fae-
ces. Steatorrhoea causes bulky, loose,
pale-coloured,
greasy,
and
offensive-
smelling faeces that float in the toilet.
Steatorrhoea may occur in
p a n c re a t it is
and
c o e lia c d is e a s e
(which
interfere
w ith the breakdown of fat from food)
and after the removal of substantial seg-
ments of small intestine. It is also a side
effect of some
lip id - lo w e r in g d r u g s
.
S t e in -L e v e n t h a l s y n d ro m e
See
o v a ry , p o ly c y s t ic
.
ste m c e ll
A basic cell in the body from which
more specialized cells are formed. Stem
cells in the
b o n e m a rro w
produce
b lo o d
c e lls
.
The cells are also found in blood
and in a baby’s umbilical cord.
Stem cells can be transplanted as an
alternative to
b o n e m a rro w tra n s p la n ta -
t io n .
This procedure is used mainly for
people being treated for leukaemia and
other cancers but may, in the future, be
used for noncancerous disorders. Cells
may be taken from a donor sibling, a
matched but unrelated donor, or from
stored umbilical blood. Patients can also
act as their own donors: they may have
their stem cells harvested and stored, to
be reinfused later after treatment has
damaged the bone marrow.
s t e n o s is
Narrowing of a duct, canal, passage, or
tubular organ.
s t e n o s is , p y lo ric
See
p y lo r ic s t e n o s is
.
s te n t
A rigid metal or plastic tube that is sur-
gically inserted to open up, or keep
open, a body canal that has become nar-
rowed or closed due to disease. Stents
are used to open narrowed
c o ro n a ry
a rte rie s
or to relieve a blockage caused
by a tumour (in the bile duct, for a
tumour of the
p a n c r e a s
,
for example).
S
711
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