Sturge-Weber syndrome
Sturge-Weber syndrome is evident in this MRI
ofthe brain. The black areas are the fluid-filled
ventricles, and the white section (bottom left of
the image) is part ofthe brain that has calcified.
s tu tt e rin g
A speech disorder in w hich there is
repeated hesitation and delay in uttering
words, unusual prolongation of sounds,
and repetition of word elements. Stutter-
ing usually starts before the age of eight
and may continue into adult life. It is
more common in males, twins, and left-
handed people, and may occur with
t ic s
or tremors.The severity may be related to
social circumstances. The exact cause is
unknown, although it tends to run in
S p e e c h th e ra p y
often helps.
S t V it u s ’ d a n c e
S y d e n h a m ’s c h o re a .
s ty e
Also called a hordeolum, a small, pus-
a b s c e s s
at the base of an eyelash
that is caused by bacterial infection.
Stye on eyelid
Caused by infection at the base of an eyelash, a
stye most often forms near the inner corner ofthe
eye. This stye has formed in the centre, resulting
in swelling and inflammation ofthe upper eyelid.
s u b a c ro m ia l b u rs it is
Inflammation of the fluid-filled sac
that cushions the acromion, part of
s c a p u la
(shoulderblade). The con-
dition occurs if the bursa becomes
trapped in the shoulder joint after a
fall or overuse of the arm (for exam-
ple, in sports involving throwing). It
causes pain and restricted movement
of the shoulder, particularly when lift-
ing the arm sideways.
of subacromial
usually includes rest,
a n a lg e s ic d ru g s
n o n s t e ro id a l a n ti-in fla m m a t o ry d r u g s
p h y s -
io t h e ra p y
may be given to help maintain
m obility in the joint. For persistent
cases, a corticosteroid injection into the
joint may be needed.
s u b a c u t e
A term that is used to describe a dis-
ease that runs a course between
a cu te
or short-term)
c h r o n ic
(long-term ).
s u b a c u t e b a c te ria l e n d o c a rd itis
e n d o c a r d it is
s u b a c u t e c o m b in e d
d e g e n e ra tio n o f t h e s p in a l c o rd
Progressive damage to columns of nerves
running through the spinal cord due to
vitamin B12 deficiency. Subacute com-
bined degeneration of the spinal cord
may occur as a complication of
p e r n i-
c io u s a n a e m ia
Symptoms may include
tingling and numbness of the limbs.
Weakness and
d e m e n tia
in brain function) may eventually deve-
lop. If left untreated, the disease may be
fatal after around five years. Treatment is
with vitamin B12 injections.
s u b a c u t e s c le r o s in g
p a n e n c e p h a litis
A rare and fatal type of
e n c e p h a litis
children and young adults that is caused
by the
m e a s le s
virus. Subacute scleros-
ing panencephalitis,
w hich may not
begin until several years after initial
infection, causes progressive deteriora-
weeks or months, and results in
s e iz u re s ,
s p a s t ic it y
personality change,
c o m a
eventually, death.
s u b a ra c h n o id h a e m o rrh a g e
A type of
b ra in h a e m o rrh a g e
in w hich a
blood vessel ruptures and blood leaks
into the space between the middle and
inner meninges (the membranes lining
the brain). Subarachnoid haemorrhage
is most common in individuals between
the ages of
6 0
. Bleeding usually
occurs spontaneously but may follow
unaccustomed exercise; the most com-
mon source of the bleeding is a burst
b e r r y a n e u ry s m
(a swollen, weakened
area of artery wall).
An attack may cause loss of conscious-
ness, sometimes preceded by a sudden,
violent headache at the back of the head.
If the person remains conscious,
p h o t o -
p h o b ia
(abnormal sensitivity to light),
drowsiness, nausea, vomiting. and a stiff
neck may develop. Both conscious and
unconscious patients can recover, but
it is common to have further attacks,
w hich are often fatal.
Diagnosis of a subarachnoid haemor-
rhage is by
C T s c a n n in g
a n g io g ra p h y
Treatment includes life-support proce-
dures and control of blood pressure to
prevent recurrence.
or leaking
aneurysms are usually treated by surg-
ery. Ninety per cent of those people
who survive for a month survive for at
least a year; some of these have a com-
plete recovery, and some may have a
residual disability such as paralysis.
s u b c la v ia n s t e a l s y n d ro m e
Recurrent attacks of blurred or double
vision, loss of coordination, or dizziness
when one arm
(usually the left)
moved. The cause of subcalvian steal
syndrome is narrowing of the arteries
that supply the arms, usually due to
a th -
e ro s c le r o s is
. T h e
blood supply is sufficient
while the arm is at rest, but during
movement extra blood is diverted from
the base of the brain in order to supply
the arm. Treatment of the syndrome is
a rte ria l re c o n s tru c t iv e s u r g e r y
s u b c lin ic a l
A term for a disorder that produces no
symptoms or signs, being either m ild
or in the early stages of development.
s u b c o n ju n c t iv a l h a e m o rrh a g e
Bleeding under the
c o n ju n c tiv a
(the clear
membrane covering the white of the
eye), due to rupture of tiny, fragile
Subconjunctival haemorrhage
The bleeding causes a bright red area to appear in
the white ofthe eye. A subconjunctival haemorrhage
may look alarming but is usually harmless.
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