SUNSCREENS
s u g a r-fre e m e d ic in e s
Drugs in liquid form that do not con-
tain any sugar. These products have been
developed in an attempt to reduce the
exposure of children’s teeth to excessive
amounts of sugar.
s u ic id e
The act of intentionally killing oneself.
Suicide results from a person’s reaction
to a problem that he or she perceives as
overwhelming, such as social isolation,
death of a loved one, serious physical ill-
ness, or financial problems. Suicide is
often the result of a psychiatric illness,
such as severe
d e p re s s io n
or
s c h iz o p h re n ia .
Suicide
is
most
common
among
elderly people. More men than women
commit
suicide,
although
women
attempt the act more often but are un-
successful (see
s u ic id e , a tte m p te d
) .
The
most common method of suicide is
poisoning, usually by drug overdose.
s u ic id e , a tte m p te d
A deliberate act of self-harm that is or is
believed to be life-threatening but proves
to be nonfatal.
Attempted suicide occurs more com-
monly in women and is most common
in the
1 5 - 3
0
age group. The rate is
highest in people who have personality
disorders and in those who live in
deprived urban areas or have alcohol or
drug
problems.
Trigger
factors
for
attempted suicide include the death of a
loved one, breakdown of a relationship,
financial worries, or severe loss of any
kind that results in
d e p re s s io n
. T h e
most
common method is drug overdose.
Urgent treatment is needed for
d ru g
p o is o n in g
.
Longer-term therapy aims to
provide support and treat depression.
s u lfa s a la z in e
A
d is e a s e - m o d if y in g a n t irh e u m a t ic d ru g
that is also used to relieve intestinal
inflammation
in
C r o h n ’s d is e a s e
and
u lc e ra tiv e c o lit is .
Important side effects
include aplastic anaemia (see
a n a e m ia ,
a p la s tic )
and reduction in white blood
cells and platelets (see
t h ro m b o c y t o p e -
n ia
) ;
regular blood counts are usually
carried out. Sulfasalazine may also cause
other adverse effects including nausea,
headache, fever, and appetite loss.
s u lfin p y ra z o n e
A drug that is used to reduce the fre-
quency of attacks of
g o u t
.
The side
effects of sulfinpyrazone include nausea
and abdominal pain.
s u lin d a c
A
n o n s t e r o id a l
a n ti-in fla m m a t o ry
d ru g
(NSAID) that is used to relieve joint
pain and stiffness in
a rth rit is
and acute
g o u t
.
Side effects of sulindac are the
same as for other NSAIDs and include
indigestion and sometimes bleeding or
ulcers in the stomach.
s u lp h a s a la z in e
See
s u lf a s a la z in e
.
s u lp h in p y ra z o n e
See
s u lf in p y ra z o n e
.
s u lp h o n a m id e d ru g s
COMMON DRUGS
• Sulfadiazine •Sulfamethoxazole
A group of
a n t ib a c t e ria l d r u g s
. T h e y
have
largely been superseded by more effec-
tive and less toxic alternatives.
s u lp h o n y lu re a d ru g s
A type of oral hypoglycaemic drug (see
h y p o g ly c a e m ic s , o ra l
)
used to treat type 2
d ia b e t e s m e llit u s
.
s u lp h u r
A mineral that is a constituent of vita-
m in
B1
(see
v ita m in B c o m p le x
)
and
several
essential
a m in o a c id s
.
In
the
body, it is needed to make
c o lla g e n
,
w hich is found in
bones,
tendons,
and skin, and is a constituent of
k e ra tin
(the protein in skin, hair, and nails).
Sulphur is also used as a cream in the
treatment of
a c n e
.
s u lp ir id e
An
a n tip s y c h o t ic d ru g
used in the treat-
ment of
s c h iz o p h r e n ia
and
G ille s d e la
T o u re tte ’s s y n d r o m e
.
s u m a trip ta n
A
s e ro t o n in a g o n is t
drug that is used to
relieve acute attacks of
m ig r a in e
,
espe-
cially those that have not responded to
a n a lg e s ic d ru g s
(painkillers); it is partic-
ularly effective in treating cluster head-
aches. Sumatriptan may cause chest pain
and tightness, tingling, flushing, dizzi-
ness, and weakness.
s u n b e d
A bedlike device, w ith a hinged cover,
that encloses both sides of the body and
exposes the skin to
u lt ra v io le t lig h t
to
give a fast suntan. Concerns have been
raised about the
possible
long-term
effects of sunbed use and, in particular,
the risks of
s k in c a n c e r
.
s u n b u rn
Inflammation
of the
s k in
caused by
overexposure to the sun. The
u ltra v io le t
lig h t
in sunlight may destroy cells in the
outer layer of the skin and damage tiny
blood vessels beneath. Severe sunburn
in childhood increases the risk of
s k in
c a n c e r
in later life.
Fair-skinned people are most suscep-
tible. The affected skin becomes red and
tender and may blister. The dead skin
cells are later shed by peeling.
C a la m in e
lotion soothes burnt skin.
A n a lg e s ic d ru g s
can relieve discomfort.
Avoiding exposure to the midday sun,
wearing protective clothing, and apply-
ing a high protection factor
s u n s c r e e n
help to prevent sunburn.
s u n lig h t, a d v e rs e e ffe c ts o f
Problems resulting from overexposure
to the sun and in particular from the
effects of the
u ltra v io le t lig h t
in sunlight.
Fair-skinned people are most suscepti-
ble.
Short-term
overexposure
causes
s u n b u r n
and, in intense heat, can lead to
h e a t e x h a u s tio n
or
h e a t s tro k e
.
Repeated
overexposure over a long period can
cause premature aging of the skin and
solar
k e ra to s e s
,
and increases the risk of
s k in c a n c e r
. Protecting the skin with
s u n -
s c r e e n s
helps to prevent sun damage.
Other
adverse
effects
of sunlight
include
p h o t o s e n s it iv it y
(an abnormal
sensitivity to sunlight), resulting in a
rash. Exposure to sunlight can also
affect the eyes, causing irritation of
the conjunctiva, actinic
k e ra to p a th y
,
or
p t e r y g iu m
.
Good quality sunglasses help
to prevent eye problems.
s u n p ro te c tio n fa c to r (S P F )
A measure of the amount of UVB radia-
tion that a
s u n s c r e e n
absorbs and thus
the degree of protection that it provides
against sunburn. It is given as a number
(SPF number); the higher the SPF num -
ber,
the
greater
the
protection. The
number
refers
to
how
many
times
longer an individual can stay out in the
sun without burning.
s u n s c re e n s
Also called sunblocks, preparations that
help to protect the skin from the harm-
ful effects of sunlight. To remain effective,
however, sunscreens must be reapplied
on a regular basis.
WARNING
Some suntanning preparations do not
contain a sunscreen and therefore pro-
vide no protection against sunburn.
S
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