TRANSIENT ISCHAEMIC ATTACK (TIA)
TRACTION FOR FEMORAL FRACTURE
The thigh muscles have a tendency to go into spasm, because of their immense
power, and fractures of the femur (thigh-bone) tend to override this force. Without
traction to prevent this, the bone would heal with overlapping ends with the result
that the leg would be permanently shortened.
Traction force
Stirrup
Countertraction
Tilted bed
Procedure
Traction is usually performed by means of a
narrow steel pin that is pushed through the
upper end of the tibia (shin); a steel stirrup is
Tibia
Fracture of fem ur
can be used to apply the force. The other end
of the femur must be immobilized (or counter-
traction applied) in order that the fractured bone
attached to this in order that a cord and weight
ends are kept in alignment.
o r
t o
h o l d
t h e m
i n
p l a c e . T r a c t i o n
i s
m o s t c o m m o n l y u s e d t o t r e a t a
fra c tu re
i n w h i c h m u s c l e s a r o u n d t h e b o n e e n d s
a r e p u l l i n g t h e b o n e s o u t o f a l i g n m e n t .
tra g u s
T h e
s m a l l
p r o j e c t i o n
o f
c a r t i l a g e
i n
f r o n t o f t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e e a r c a n a l .
tra in in g
A p r o g r a m m e o f e x e r c i s e s t h a t i s u n d e r -
t a k e n t o p r e p a r e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r s p o r t .
T r a i n i n g
m a y
b e
c o n c e n t r a t e d
o n
i m
-
p r o v i n g s k i l l s o r o n i m p r o v i n g p h y s i c a l
fitn e s s.
F i t n e s s
t r a i n i n g
s h o u l d
i n c l u d e
b o t h
a e ro b ic
a n d
a n a e r o b i c
e x e r c i s e s ,
w h i c h t o g e t h e r b u i l d u p s t r e n g t h , f l e x i -
b i l i t y , a n d e n d u r a n c e . I n t e r v a l t r a i n i n g i s
a t y p e o f f i t n e s s p r o g r a m m e i n w h i c h a
p a r t i c u l a r
e x e r c i s e
i s
r e p e a t e d
s e v e r a l
t i m e s w i t h a r e s t p e r i o d b e t w e e n . C i r -
c u i t t r a i n i n g
c o n s i s t s
o f p e r f o r m i n g
a
s e t n u m b e r o f d i f f e r e n t e x e r c i s e s .
tra it
A n y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o r
c o n d i t i o n t h a t i s
i n h e r i t e d
( w h i c h m e a n s t h a t i s d e t e r -
m i n e d b y o n e o r m
o r e
g e n e s ) .
B l u e o r
b r o w n e y e c o l o u r , d a r k o r l i g h t s k i n , a n d
n o s e
s h a p e
a r e
e x a m p l e s
o f
g e n e t i c
t r a i t s . T h e t e r m t r a i t i s a l s o s o m e t i m e s
u s e d t o d e s c r i b e a m i l d f o r m o f a r e -
c e s s i v e
g e n e t ic d is o r d e r ,
f o r
e x a m p l e
t h a la s s a e m ia
t r a i t .
tra m a d o l
A n
o p io id d ru g
t h a t
i s u s e d t o
r e l i e v e
s e v e r e
p a i n
f o l l o w i n g
a
h e a r t
a t t a c k ,
s u r g e r y , o r s e r i o u s i l l n e s s . T r a m a d o l i s
l e s s
l i k e l y
t o
c a u s e
d e p e n d e n c e
w i t h
l o n g - t e r m
u s e
t h a n
m
o s t
o p i o i d s .
P o s s i b l e
s i d e
e f f e c t s
i n c l u d e
n a u s e a ,
v o m i t i n g ,
d r o w s i n e s s ,
c o n f u s i o n ,
a n d
i m p a i r e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s .
tra n c e
A s l e e p l i k e s t a t e i n w h i c h c o n s c i o u s n e s s
i s r e d u c e d , v o l u n t a r y a c t i o n s l e s s e n e d o r
a b s e n t , a n d b o d y f u n c t i o n s d i m i n i s h e d .
T r a n c e s a r e
c l a i m e d t o b e i n d u c e d b y
h y p n o s is
a n d h a v e b e e n r e p o r t e d a s p a r t
o f a g r o u p e x p e r i e n c e . T r a n c e s m a y b e a
f e a t u r e
o f
c a ta le p s y ,
a u to m a tis m ,
a n d
p e t i t m a l
e p ile p s y
.
tra n e x a m ic a c id
A n a n t i f i b r i n o l y t i c d r u g t h a t p r o m o t e s
b lo o d c lo ttin g .
T r a n e x a m i c a c i d i s p a r t i c -
u l a r l y
u s e f u l
i n
t r e a t i n g
m e n o rrh a g ia
( h e a v y m e n s t r u a l p e r i o d s ) . S i d e e f f e c t s
o f t h e d r u g m a y i n c l u d e d i a r r h o e a , n a u -
s e a , a n d v o m i t i n g .
tra n q u illiz e r d ru g s
D r u g s t h a t h a v e a s e d a t i v e e f f e c t . T r a n -
q u i l l i z e r s
a r e
d i v i d e d
i n t o
t w o
t y p e s :
m
a j o r
t r a n q u i l l i z e r s
( s e e
a n tip s y c h o t ic
d r u g s
)
a n d
m
i n o r
t r a n q u i l l i z e r s
( s e e
a n tia n x ie ty d r u g s ).
tra n s c u ta n e o u s e le c tric a l n e rv e
s tim u la tio n
S e e
TEN S.
tra n s d e rm a l p atch
A m e t h o d o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g m e d i c a t i o n
t h r o u g h t h e s k i n , u s i n g a d r u g - i m p r e g -
n a t e d ,
a d h e s i v e
p a t c h .
T h e
d r u g
i s
r e l e a s e d f r o m t h e p a t c h o v e r a p e r i o d o f
t i m e a n d i s a b s o r b e d b y t h e s k i n .
tra n s fe re n c e
T h e u n c o n s c i o u s d i s p l a c e m e n t o f e m
o -
t i o n s f r o m p e o p l e w h o w e r e i m p o r t a n t
d u r i n g
o n e ’s
c h i l d h o o d ,
s u c h
a s
p a r -
e n t s , t o o t h e r p e o p l e d u r i n g a d u l t h o o d .
F o r
e x a m p l e ,
d u r i n g
p s y c h o t h e r a p y ,
a n g e r t h a t t h e a n a l y s a n d f e e l s t o w a r d s h i s
o r h e r f a t h e r m a y b e t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e
t h e r a p i s t . ( S e e a l s o
p s y c h o a n a ly s is .)
tra n s fu s io n
S e e
b lo o d t ra n s f u s io n
.
tra n s fu s io n , a u to lo g o u s
S e e
b lo o d tra n s fu s io n , a u t o lo g o u s .
tra n s ie n t is c h a e m ic a tta c k (TIA )
A b r i e f i n t e r r u p t i o n o f t h e b l o o d s u p p l y
t o p a r t o f t h e b r a i n , w h i c h c a u s e s t e m
-
p o r a r y
i m p a i r m e n t
o f
v i s i o n ,
s p e e c h ,
s e n s a t i o n , o r m o v e m e n t . T h e e p i s o d e t y p -
i c a l l y
l a s t s
f o r
s e v e r a l
m i n u t e s
o r ,
a t
m o s t , f o r a f e w h o u r s . T I A s a r e s o m
e -
t i m e s d e s c r i b e d a s m
i n i s t r o k e s , a n d c a n
b e
t h e
p r e l u d e
t o
a
s tro k e .
A
s t r o k e
o c c u r s w i t h i n f i v e y e a r s i n u p t o o n e
t h i r d o f p a t i e n t s w h o h a v e h a d a T I A .
CAUSES
T I A s m a y b e c a u s e d b y a b l o o d c l o t ( s e e
e m b o lis m
)
t h a t
t e m p o r a r i l y
b l o c k s
a n
a r t e r y s u p p l y i n g
t h e
b r a i n ,
o r
b y
n a r -
r o w i n g o f a n a r t e r y a s a r e s u l t o f
a th er-
o s c le r o s is
( b u i l d u p
o f f a t t y d e p o s i t s i n
t h e a r t e r y w a l l ) .
INVESTIGATION
A f t e r a T I A ,
t e s t s s u c h a s
C T s c a n n in g
,
b lo o d te sts,
a n d
a n g io g r a p h y
o r D o p p l e r
u lt ra s o u n d s c a n n in g
o f t h e c a r o t i d a r t e r y
i n t h e n e c k m a y b e n e e d e d t o f i n d a
c a u s e . I n s o m
e c a s e s , t h e h e a r t i s s t u d -
i e d a s a p o s s i b l e s o u r c e o f b l o o d c l o t s .
TREATMENT
T r e a t m e n t , w h i c h i s a i m e d a t p r e v e n t -
i n g a s t r o k e i n c l u d e s
e n d a rt e re c to m y
( a n
o p e r a t i o n t o
r e m o v e
t h e
l i n i n g
o f a n
a r t e r y a f f e c t e d b y a t h e r o s c l e r o s i s ) ,
a s p i-
rin
( w h i c h r e d u c e s t h e “ s t i c k i n e s s ”
o f
b l o o d ) ,
o r
a n tic o a g u la n t d ru g s .
P e o p l e
w h o h a v e h a d a T I A c a n h e l p p r e v e n t a
s t r o k e b y l i f e s t y l e c h a n g e s s u c h a s s t o p -
p i n g s m o k i n g a n d a d o p t i n g a l o w - f a t d i e t .
T
755
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