UVULA
RETROVERTED UTERUS
In about 80 per cent of women, the
uterus is anteverted (tilted forwards).
In addition, the body of the organ is
anteflexed (bent forwards). In simple
retroversion, the organ is tilted back,
but not bent back. A retroverted
uterus may also be retroflexed (bent
back). Retroversion is a normal variant
and does not cause symptoms.
Anteflexion (most common position)
The illustration shows the usual position
of the uterus, lying bent and tilted
forwards, at right angles to the vagina.
Simple retroversion
A retroverted uterus that can easily be
anteverted by manipulation seldom causes
any symptoms.
\
Retroversion and retroflexion
The retroversion and retroflexion maybe
the result ofdisease such as endometriosis.
There maybe symptoms including painful
intercourse.
r e t r o v e r t e d
u t e r u s
i n c l i n e s
b a c k w a r d s .
A b o u t
1
i n 5 f e m a l e s h a s a r e t r o v e r t e d
u t e r u s .
I n
s o m e
c a s e s , t h e
u t e r u s
h a s
f a i l e d
t o
i n c l i n e
f o r w a r d s
d u r i n g
t h e
n o r m a l
p r o c e s s
o f m a t u r a t i o n .
O t h e r
c a s e s
a r e
d u e
t o
c h a n g e s
i n
p o s i t i o n
a f t e r c h i l d b i r t h . L e s s c o m m o n l y , r e t r o -
v e r s i o n i s c a u s e d b y a d i s e a s e , s u c h a s a
t u m o u r ;
s c a r r i n g
c a u s e d
b y
e n d o -
m e t rio s is ;
o r
p e lv ic in fla m m a to ry d is e a s e .
A
r e t r o v e r t e d
u t e r u s
r a r e l y
c a u s e s
p r o b l e m s . I f i t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u n d e r -
l y i n g
d i s e a s e ,
h o w e v e r ,
i t
m a y
c a u s e
s y m p t o m s s u c h a s
d y s m e n o rrh o e a
( p a i n -
f u l
p e r i o d s ) ,
p a i n
d u r i n g
i n t e r c o u r s e
( s e e
in t e rc o u rs e , p a in f u l),
a n d
in fe rtility .
R a r e l y , a r e t r o v e r t e d u t e r u s m a y f a i l t o
l i f t
o u t
o f t h e
p e l v i s
a f t e r
a b o u t
1 2
w e e k s o f p r e g n a n c y , a s i s u s u a l , w h i c h
m a y l e a d t o u r i n a r y r e t e n t i o n n e e d i n g
c a t h e t e r i z a t i o n .
D i a g n o s i s o f a r e t r o v e r t e d u t e r u s i s b y
m e a n s
o f
p h y s i c a l
e x a m i n a t i o n
( s e e
p e lv ic e x a m in a t io n ). L a p a ro s c o p y
( e x a m
i -
n a t i o n o f t h e a b d o m i n a l c a v i t y w i t h a
v i e w i n g i n s t r u m e n t ) m a y b e p e r f o r m e d
i f a n u n d e r l y i n g
d i s e a s e
i s
s u s p e c t e d .
T r e a t m e n t o f t h e c o n d i t i o n i s n o t n e c e s -
s a r y u n l e s s t h e r e t r o v e r s i o n i s c a u s i n g
s y m p t o m s ,
i n
w h i c h
c a s e
t h e
u n d e r -
l y i n g c a u s e i s t r e a t e d o r t h e u t e r u s m a y
b e m a n i p u l a t e d b a c k
i n t o
p o s i t i o n
o r
s u r g i c a l l y r e p o s i t i o n e d .
u v e a
P a r t o f t h e
eye
, c o m p r i s i n g t h e
ir is
( t h e
p i g m e n t e d
a r e a
a r o u n d
t h e
p u p i l ) ,
t h e
c ilia r y b o d y
a n d i t s
m u s c l e ,
w h i c h
f o c u s e s
t h e
le n s ,
a n d t h e
c h o r o id
( t h e
b l o o d - r i c h l a y e r j u s t u n d e r t h e
re t in a
) .
T h e u v e a i s w e l l s u p p l i e d w i t h b l o o d
v e s s e l s . T h o s e
i n
t h e
i r i s
s u p p l y
t h e
m u s c l e s t h a t c o n t r o l d i l a t i o n ( w i d e n i n g )
a n d
c o n s t r i c t i o n
( n a r r o w i n g )
o f
t h e
p u p i l . T h e v e s s e l s i n t h e c h o r o i d s u p p l y
o x y g e n a n d n u t r i e n t s t o t h e r e t i n a .
P i g m e n t c e l l s , w h i c h a r e c o n c e n t r a t -
e d i n t h e b a c k o f t h e i r i s a n d s c a t t e r e d
t h r o u g h o u t t h e c h o r o i d , g i v e t h e e y e i t s
c o l o u r a n d i m p r o v e o p t i c a l e f f i c i e n c y .
u v e itis
I n f l a m m a t i o n o f t h e
u v e a .
U v e i t i s m a y
a f f e c t a n y
p a r t
o f t h e u v e a ,
i n c l u d i n g
t h e
ir is
( w h e n i t i s c a l l e d i r i t i s ) , t h e
c ili-
a ry b o d y
( w h e n i t i s k n o w n a s c y c l i t i s ) ,
o r t h e
c h o r o id
( w h e n i t i s c a l l e d c h o r -
o i d i t i s ) . I t m a y s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t v i s i o n .
T h e m o s t c o m m o n
c a u s e i s a n
a u to -
im m u n e d is o rd e r,
a n d i t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h
j o i n t
p r o b l e m s .
O t h e r
c a u s e s
i n c l u d e
i n f e c t i o n s s u c h a s
tu b e rc u lo s is
a n d
s y p h ilis .
T r e a t m e n t i s w i t h
c o rt ic o s t e ro id d ru g s
t o
r e l i e v e
i n f l a m m a t i o n ,
a n d
e y e - d r o p s
c o n t a i n i n g
a
s u b s t a n c e
r e l a t e d
t o
a tro p in e ,
w h i c h b l o c k s n e r v e i m p u l s e s
t o
t h e
m u s c l e s
o f t h e
i r i s a n d
c i l i a r y
b o d y . T h e
i n f l a m m a t i o n
i s
m o n i t o r e d
w i t h
a
s lit-la m p .
O t h e r
d r u g s
m a y
b e
g i v e n f o r a n i n f e c t i o n .
u v u la
T h e
s m a l l ,
f l e s h y
p r o t u b e r a n c e
t h a t
h a n g s
f r o m
t h e
m i d d l e
o f t h e
l o w e r
e d g e o f t h e s o f t
p a la te .
I t i s c o m p o s e d
o f m u s c l e a n d c o n n e c t i v e t i s s u e , w i t h a
c o v e r i n g o f m u c o u s m e m b r a n e .
U
779
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