WATERING EYE
W
SAFETY OF WATER AND OTHER DRINKS FOR CONSUMPTION
Water from any source that falls into the suspect or very suspect categories should
be sterilized. Techniques include boiling, filtering, and chemical treatment.
Category
Developed countries
Developing countries
Usually
safe
Tap waterfrom public supply; rainwater;
canned or bottled drinks; spring water
Canned or bottled drinks of
well-known brands; rainwater
Suspect
Water direct from rivers, streams,
lakes, ponds, canals, and wells
Tap water (cities); spring water
Very
suspect
Obviously polluted water (i.e. cloudy in
appearance or with an unpleasant smell)
Tap water (rural areas); water direct from
rivers, streams, lakes, ponds, and canals
h o u r s . T h e s y n d r o m e i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d
w i t h
m e n in g itis ,
w h i c h a f f e c t s t h e m
e m
-
b r a n e s c o v e r i n g t h e b r a i n a n d s p i n a l c o r d .
w a te rin g e y e
A n i n c r e a s e i n v o l u m e o f t h e t e a r f i l m ,
u s u a l l y
p r o d u c i n g
e p i p h o r a
( o v e r f l o w
o f
t e a r s ).
I t m a y b e
c a u s e d b y e x c e s s
t e a r p r o d u c t i o n d u e t o
e m
o t i o n ,
c o n -
j u n c t i v a l
o r
c o r n e a l
i r r i t a t i o n ,
o r
a n
o b s t r u c t i o n t o t h e c h a n n e l t h a t d r a i n s
t e a r s . ( S e e a l s o
la c rim a l a p p a ra tu s .)
w a te r in to x ic a tio n
A c o n d i t i o n t h a t i s c a u s e d b y e x c e s s i v e
w a t e r r e t e n t i o n i n t h e b r a i n . T h e p r i n c i -
p a l s y m p t o m s a r e h e a d a c h e s , d i z z i n e s s ,
n a u s e a , c o n f u s i o n , a n d , i n s e v e r e c a s e s ,
s e i z u r e s a n d u n c o n s c i o u s n e s s .
V a r i o u s
d i s o r d e r s
c a n
d i s r u p t
t h e
w a t e r b a l a n c e i n t h e b o d y ,
l e a d i n g
t o
a c c u m u l a t i o n
o f w a t e r
i n
t h e
t i s s u e s .
E x a m p l e s i n c l u d e
k id n e y f a ilu re ,
l i v e r
c ir-
r h o s is ,
s e v e r e
h e a rt fa ilu r e ,
d i s e a s e s o f t h e
a d re n a l g la n d s ,
a n d
c e r t a i n
l u n g
o r
o v a r i a n t u m o u r s p r o d u c i n g a s u b s t a n c e
s i m i l a r t o
A D H
( a n t i d i u r e t i c h o r m
o n e ) .
W a t e r i n t o x i c a t i o n i s a l s o s e e n i n a s s o c i -
a t i o n w i t h t h e u s e o f
E c s t a s y
( M D M A ) ,
d u r i n g
w h i c h
e x c e s s i v e
a m o u n t s
o f
w a t e r a r e d r u n k . T h e r e i s a l s o a r i s k o f
w a t e r i n t o x i c a t i o n a f t e r s u r g e r y , c a u s e d
b y i n c r e a s e d A D H p r o d u c t i o n .
w a te r on th e b ra in
A n o n m e d i c a l t e r m f o r
h y d ro c e p h a lu s
.
w a te r on th e k n e e
A
p o p u l a r
t e r m
f o r
a c c u m u l a t i o n
o f
f l u i d
i n
o r
a r o u n d
t h e
k n e e
j o i n t .
A
c o m
m o n c a u s e i s
b u r s it is
( i n f l a m m a t i o n
o f a b u r s a , o n e o f t h e f l u i d - f i l l e d s a c s
t h a t
c u s h i o n
p r e s s u r e
p o i n t s
i n
t h e
b o d y ) . ( S e e a l s o
e ffu s io n , jo in t .)
w a te r re te n tio n
A c c u m u l a t i o n o f f l u i d i n
b o d y t i s s u e s
( s e e
o e d e m a ).
w a te r ta b le ts
A n o n m e d i c a l t e r m f o r
d iu r e t ic d ru g s .
w a x b a th
A t y p e o f
h e a t tre a tm e n t
i n w h i c h h o t
l i q u i d w a x i s a p p l i e d t o a p a r t o f t h e
b o d y i n o r d e r t o r e l i e v e p a i n a n d s t i f f -
n e s s
i n
a n
i n f l a m e d
o r
i n j u r e d
j o i n t .
W
a x
b a t h s
m a y
b e
u s e d
t o
t r e a t
t h e
h a n d s o f p e o p l e w i t h
r h e u m a t o id a r t h r it is
.
w a x , e a r
S e e
e a rw a x.
w e a k n e s s
A t e r m u s e d t o d e s c r i b e a l a c k o f v i g o u r
o r s t r e n g t h . T h i s i s a c o m m o n s y m p t o m
o f a r a n g e o f c o n d i t i o n s , s u c h a s
a n a e m ia ,
e m o t io n a l p ro b le m s ,
a n d v a r i o u s d i s o r d e r s
a f f e c t i n g
t h e
h e a r t ,
n e r v o u s
s y s t e m ,
b o n e s , j o i n t s , a n d m u s c l e s . W
h e n a s s o c i -
a t e d w i t h e m o t i o n a l d i s o r d e r s , w e a k n e s s
m a y r e p r e s e n t l a c k
o f d e s i r e
o r
a m
b i -
t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n l o s s o f m u s c l e s t r e n g t h .
M o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e t e r m d e s c r i b e s
l o s s
o f
p o w e r
i n
p a r t i c u l a r
m u s c l e
g r o u p s , w h i c h m a y b e a c c o m p a n i e d b y
m u s c l e
w a s t i n g
a n d
l o s s
o f s e n s a t i o n .
( S e e a l s o
p a r a ly s is .)
w e a l
A r a i s e d b u m p o n t h e s k i n t h a t i s p a l e r
t h a n t h e a d j a c e n t t i s s u e a n d m a y b e s u r -
r o u n d e d b y r e d i n f l a m m a t i o n . W e a l s a r e
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f
u rtic a ria
( h i v e s ) .
w e a n in g
T h e g r a d u a l s u b s t i t u t i o n o f s o l i d f o o d s
f o r m i l k o r m i l k f o r m u l a i n a n i n f a n t ’s
d i e t ( s e e
f e e d in g , in fa n t).
w e b b in g
A f l a p o f s k i n , s u c h a s t h a t w h i c h m i g h t
o c c u r b e t w e e n a d j a c e n t f i n g e r s o r t o e s .
W
e b b i n g i s a c o m
m o n c o n g e n i t a l ( p r e -
s e n t f r o m b i r t h ) a b n o r m a l i t y t h a t o f t e n
r u n s i n f a m i l i e s a n d w h i c h m a y a f f e c t
t w o
o r
m
o r e
d i g i t s .
M i l d w e b b i n g
i s
c o m p l e t e l y h a r m l e s s , b u t s u r g i c a l c o r -
r e c t i o n m a y b e p e r f o r m e d f o r c o s m
e t i c
r e a s o n s . I n s e v e r e c a s e s , a d j a c e n t d i g i t s
m a y b e c o m p l e t e l y f u s e d ( s e e
sy n d a cty ly
) .
W
e b b i n g o f t h e n e c k i s a f e a t u r e o f t h e
c o n d i t i o n
T u rn e r’s s y n d ro m e .
Webbing of the fingers
This curious feature is often an inherited trait,
appearing in each of several generations of a
family. Most cases are completely harmless
and do not require treatment.
W e g e n e r’s g ra n u lo m a to s is
A
r a r e
d i s o r d e r
i n
w h i c h
g ra n u lo m a s
( n o d u l a r c o l l e c t i o n s o f a b n o r m a l c e l l s ) ,
a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a r e a s o f c h r o n i c t i s s u e
i n f l a m m a t i o n d u e t o
v a s c u lit is (in fla m m a -
tio n o f th e b lo o d v e s s e ls )
d e v e l o p i n t h e
n a s a l p a s s a g e s , l u n g s , a n d k i d n e y s . I t i s
t h o u g h t t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n i s a n
a u t o -
im m u n e d is o r d e r
( i n w h i c h
t h e
b o d y ’s
n a t u r a l d e f e n c e s a t t a c k i t s o w n t i s s u e s ) .
SYMPTOMS
P r i n c i p a l
s y m p t o m s
i n c l u d e
a
b l o o d y
n a s a l d i s c h a r g e , c o u g h i n g ( w h i c h s o m e -
t i m e s p r o d u c e s b l o o d s t a i n e d s p u t u m ) ,
b r e a t h i n g
d i f f i c u l t y ,
c h e s t
p a i n ,
a n d
b l o o d i n t h e u r i n e . T h e r e m a y a l s o b e
l o s s o f a p p e t i t e , w e i g h t l o s s , w e a k n e s s ,
f a t i g u e , a n d j o i n t p a i n s .
TREATMENT
T r e a t m e n t
o f
t h e
c o n d i t i o n
i s
w i t h
im m u n o s u p p r e s s a n t d r u g s ,
s u c h a s
c y c lo -
p h o s p h a m id e
o r
a z a t h io p rin e ,
c o m b i n e d
w i t h
c o rtic o s te ro id s
t o a l l e v i a t e s y m p t o m s
a n d a t t e m p t t o b r i n g a b o u t a r e m i s s i o n .
OUTLOOK
W
i t h
p r o m p t
t r e a t m e n t ,
m o s t
p e o p l e
r e c o v e r
c o m
p l e t e l y
f r o m
W
e g e n e r ’s
g r a n u l o m a t o s i s w i t h i n a b o u t a y e a r , b u t
k id n e y f a ilu r e
o c c a s i o n a l l y
d e v e l o p s .
W
i t h o u t t r e a t m e n t ,
c o m p l i c a t i o n s m a y
o c c u r , i n c l u d i n g p e r f o r a t i o n o f t h e n a s a l
s e p t u m , c a u s i n g d e f o r m i t y o f t h e n o s e ;
i n f l a m m a t i o n o f t h e e y e s ; r a s h , n o d u l e s ,
802
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