WEIL’S DISEASE
W
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR WEIGHT REDUCTION
Cutdown drastically on all visible fats, including butter, margarine, cream, and cooking oils,
as well as the invisible fats that are present in pastries, biscuits, and cakes. Choose low-fat
milk, cheeses, and yogurts.
Choose lean cuts of meat and avoid processed meat such as salami. Grill or roast meat without
adding fat instead of frying.
Eat more boiled legumes (e.g. lentils and beans), which provide protein but contain very little fat.
Avoid refined carbohydrates such as sugar (sucrose) as well as refined grain products such as
white flour and white rice.
Increase your consumption ofunrefined carbohydrates. Eat wholemeal bread, whole-grain rice
and cereals, fresh fruit, and plenty ofvegetables.
Reduce your intake of alcoholic drinks, which are high in calories.
W e il’s d is e a s e
A n o t h e r n a m e f o r
le p t o s p iro s is .
w e ld e r’s e y e
A l s o k n o w n a s a r c
e y e , a c u t e
c o n ju n c -
t iv itis
a n d
k e ra to p a th y
( c o r n e a l d a m a g e )
t h a t i s c a u s e d b y t h e i n t e n s e
u lt ra v io le t
lig h t
e m i t t e d b y a n e l e c t r i c w e l d i n g a r c .
W
e l d e r ’s
e y e
i s
a
c o n s e q u e n c e
o f t h e
f a i l u r e t o w e a r a d e q u a t e e y e p r o t e c t i o n
w h i l e p e r f o r m i n g w e l d i n g t a s k s .
w e n
A n a m e f o r a
s e b a c e o u s cyst.
W e rd n ig -H o ffm a n n d is e a s e
A v e r y
r a r e
i n h e r i t e d
d i s o r d e r
o f t h e
n e rv o u s s y s t e m
t h a t a f f e c t s i n f a n t s . A l s o
k n o w n a s i n f a n t i l e s p i n a l m u s c u l a r a t r o -
p h y ,
W
e r d n i g - H o f f m
a n n
d i s e a s e
i s
a
t y p e
o f
m o t o r n e u ro n d is e a s e ,
a f f e c t i n g
t h e n e r v e c e l l s i n t h e s p i n a l c o r d t h a t
c o n t r o l m u s c l e m o v e m e n t .
M a r k e d f l o p p i n e s s a n d p a r a l y s i s o c c u r
d u r i n g t h e f i r s t f e w m o n t h s , a n d a f f e c t -
e d
c h i l d r e n
r a r e l y s u r v i v e b e y o n d t h e
a g e o f t h r e e .
T h e r e i s n o c u r e f o r t h e d i s e a s e . T r e a t -
m e n t a i m s t o k e e p t h e a f f e c t e d i n f a n t a s
c o m f o r t a b l e a s p o s s i b l e .
W e rn ic k e -K o rs a k o ff s y n d ro m e
A n
u n c o m m o n
b r a i n
d i s o r d e r ,
a l m o s t
a l w a y s
r e l a t e d
t o
m a l n u t r i t i o n ,
t h a t
o c c u r s i n c h r o n i c a l c o h o l d e p e n d e n c e .
I t m a y a l s o o c c a s i o n a l l y o c c u r i n c a n c e r .
CAUSES
W
e r n i c k e - K o r s a k o f f
s y n d r o m e
r e s u l t s
f r o m a d e f i c i e n c y o f t h i a m i n e ( s e e
v ita -
m in B c o m p le x ),
w h i c h a f f e c t s t h e b r a i n
a n d n e r v o u s s y s t e m .
SYMPTOMS
T h e d i s e a s e c o n s i s t s o f t w o s t a g e s : W
e r -
n i c k e ’s e n c e p h a l o p a t h y a n d K o r s a k o f f ’s
p s y c h o s i s .
W
e r n i c k e ’s
e n c e p h a l o p a t h y
u s u a l l y d e v e l o p s s u d d e n l y a n d p r o d u c e s
n y s t a g m u s ( a b n o r m a l , j e r k y e y e m o v e -
m
e n t s ) ,
a t a x i a
( d i f f i c u l t y
c o o r d i n a t i n g
b o d y m o v e m e n t s ) , s l o w n e s s , a n d c o n -
f u s i o n .
S u f f e r e r s u s u a l l y
h a v e s i g n s
o f
n e u r o p a t h y
( n e r v e
d a m a g e ) ,
s u c h
a s
s e n s a t i o n
l o s s ,
p i n s - a n d - n e e d l e s ,
o r
i m p a i r e d
r e f l e x e s .
T h e
l e v e l
o f
c o n -
s c i o u s n e s s
f a l l s
p r o g r e s s i v e l y
a n d m a y
l e a d t o c o m a a n d d e a t h u n l e s s t r e a t e d .
K o r s a k o f f ’s
p s y c h o s i s
m a y
f o l l o w
W
e r n i c k e ’s e n c e p h a l o p a t h y i f t r e a t m e n t
i s
n o t
p r o m p t .
S y m p t o m s
c o n s i s t
o f
a m n e s ia ,
a p a t h y , a n d d i s o r i e n t a t i o n .
TREATMENT AND OUTLOOK
W
e r n i c k e ’s e n c e p h a l o p a t h y i s a n e m e r g -
e n c y . H i g h d o s e s o f i n t r a v e n o u s t h i a m i n e
c a n r e v e r s e m o s t s y m p t o m s , s o m e t i m e s
w i t h i n h o u r s . H o w e v e r , o n c e t h e d i s e a s e
p r o g r e s s e s
t o
K o r s a k o f f ’s
p s y c h o s i s ,
i t
i s u s u a l l y i r r e v e r s i b l e .
W e rn ic k e ’s a re a
A n a r e a
o f t h e
c e r e b r a l
c o r t e x
i n
t h e
b r a i n t h a t i s i n v o l v e d i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a -
t i o n
o f s p o k e n
a n d w r i t t e n
l a n g u a g e .
D a m a g e t o W
e r n i c k e ’s a r e a m a y r e s u l t i n
a p h a s ia
( a c o m p l e t e l o s s o f p r e v i o u s l y
a c q u i r e d l a n g u a g e s k i l l s ) .
W e rn ic k e ’s e n c e p h a lo p a th y
S e e
W e rn ic k e -K o rs a k o f f s y n d ro m e .
W e st N ile v iru s
A v i r u s t h a t i s t r a n s m i t t e d f r o m i n f e c t e d
a n i m a l s o r b i r d s t o h u m a n s b y a m
o s -
q u i t o
b i t e .
I n
m o s t
c a s e s ,
t h e r e
a r e
e i t h e r n o s y m p t o m s o r t h e r e i s a f l u l i k e
i l l n e s s . R a r e l y , a s e r i o u s a n d p o t e n t i a l l y
f a t a l i l l n e s s , i n w h i c h t h e v i r u s i n f e c t s
t h e
b r a i n ,
c a n
d e v e l o p .
T h e
v i r u s
i s
CAUSE OF WHIPLASH INJURY
This injury to the neck section ofthe spine may occur when a car is subjected to a
sudden violent force and the occupant’s body is restrained in the seat but his or
her head is not restrained by an appropriate head restraint.
Sudden acceleration
Here, there is a sudden force
from behind (usuallydue to
another vehicle’s striking the
rear ofthe car). As the body
accelerates forwards, the
head jerks violently
backwards relative to the
body, stretching and bending
the neck; the head then
rebounds forwards.
Sudden deceleration
Here, there is a sudden violent
force from the fronttowards
the back ofthe vehicle, due,
for example, to a collision with
a tree. The seat belt restrains
the body, butthe head
continues to move forwards,
stretching the neck; the head
then rebounds backwards.
Direction of force
----------
1
--------- ►
Direction o f force
_____ I_____
Cervical spine
Ligaments
Cervical
spine
Ligaments
804
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