WOUND INFECTION
e y e s a n d n o s e , y a w n i n g , d i l a t e d p u p i l s ,
d i a r r h o e a , v o m i t i n g , a b d o m i n a l c r a m p s ,
l o s s
o f a p p e t i t e ,
i r r i t a b i l i t y ,
w e a k n e s s ,
t r e m o r , a n d d e p r e s s i o n .
TRANQUILLIZER WITHDRAWAL
W
i t h d r a w a l s y m p t o m s f r o m
b a rb it u ra t e
d ru g s
a n d
m e p ro b a m a t e
b e g i n , a f t e r
1 2
t o
2 4
h o u r s ,
w i t h
t r e m o r s ,
a n x i e t y ,
r e s t l e s s n e s s ,
a n d
w e a k n e s s ,
s o m e t i m e s
f o l l o w e d
b y
d e liriu m ,
h a l l u c i n a t i o n s ,
a n d , o c c a s i o n a l l y , s e i z u r e s . A p e r i o d o f
p r o l o n g e d
s l e e p
o c c u r s
t h r e e t o
e i g h t
d a y s
a f t e r
o n s e t .
W
i t h d r a w a l
f r o m
b e n z o d ia z e p in e d r u g s
m a y
b e g i n
m u c h
m o r e s l o w l y a n d c a n b e s e r i o u s , o f t e n
r e s u l t i n g i n d e p r e s s i o n , c o n f u s i o n ,
a g o -
ra p h o b ia
( f e a r o f o p e n s p a c e s a n d p u b l i c
p l a c e s ) , a n d / o r
p s y c h o s is
.
STOPPING SMOKING
W
i t h d r a w a l
s y m p t o m s
f r o m
n ic o t in e
d e v e l o p
o v e r
2 4
t o
4 8
h o u r s
a n d
i n c l u d e i r r i t a b i l i t y , c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o b -
l e m s , f r u s t r a t i o n , h e a d a c h e s , a n d a n x i e t y .
WITHDRAWAL FROM OTHER DRUGS
D i s c o n t i n u a t i o n o f c o c a i n e o r a m p h e t a -
m i n e s r e s u l t s i n d i z z i n e s s , l e t h a r g y , a n d
e x t r e m e t i r e d n e s s . C o c a i n e w i t h d r a w a l
m a y a l s o l e a d t o t r e m o r , s w e a t i n g , a n d
s e v e r e d e p r e s s i o n . W
i t h d r a w a l s y m p t o m s
f r o m m a r i j u a n a i n c l u d e t r e m o r , n a u s e a ,
v o m i t i n g ,
d i a r r h o e a ,
s w e a t i n g ,
i r r i t a -
b i l i t y ,
a n d s l e e p
p r o b l e m s . W
i t h d r a w a l
f r o m
c a f f e i n e
m a y
l e a d
t o
t i r e d n e s s ,
h e a d a c h e s , a n d i r r i t a b i l i t y .
TREATMENT
S e v e r e
w i t h d r a w a l
s y n d r o m e s
r e q u i r e
m e d i c a l t r e a t m e n t . S y m p t o m s
m a y
b e
s u p p r e s s e d b y g i v i n g t h e p a t i e n t s m a l l
q u a n t i t i e s o f t h e d r u g h e o r s h e h a d b e e n
t a k i n g . M o r e c o m m o n l y , a s u b s t i t u t e d r u g
i s g i v e n , s u c h a s
m e t h a d o n e
f o r
o p i o i d
d r u g s
o r
a
b e n z o d i a z e p i n e
d r u g
f o r
a l c o h o l . T h e d o s e
o f t h e d r u g i s
t h e n
g r a d u a l l y r e d u c e d .
w o b b le b o a rd
A
b a l a n c i n g
b o a r d
u s e d
d u r i n g
p h y -
s io t h e ra p y
t o
i m p r o v e
m u s c l e
s t r e n g t h
a n d c o o r d i n a t i o n i n t h e f e e t , a n k l e s , a n d
l e g s . A w o b b l e b o a r d i s s o m e t i m e s u s e d
a f t e r a n a n k l e s p r a i n .
w o m b
S e e
u te ru s
.
w o rd b lin d n e s s
S e e
a le x ia ; d y s le x ia .
W o rld H ealth O rg a n iza tio n (W HO )
A n
i n t e r n a t i o n a l
o r g a n i z a t i o n
e s t a b -
l i s h e d
i n
1 9 4 8
a s
a n
a g e n c y
o f t h e
U n i t e d N a t i o n s w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r
i n t e r n a t i o n a l h e a l t h m a t t e r s a n d p u b l i c
h e a l t h . T h e W
H O
h e a d q u a r t e r s
a r e
i n
G e n e v a , S w i t z e r l a n d .
T h e W
H O h a s c a m p a i g n e d e f f e c t i v e l y
a g a i n s t
s o m e
i n f e c t i o u s
d i s e a s e s ,
m o s t
n o t a b l y s m a l l p o x , t u b e r c u l o s i s , a n d m a l -
a r i a . O t h e r f u n c t i o n s i n c l u d e s p o n s o r i n g
m e d i c a l r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m m e s , o r g a n i z -
i n g n a t i o n a l l a b o r a t o r i e s , a n d p r o v i d i n g
e x p e r t h e a l t h a d v i c e a n d s p e c i f i c t a r g e t s
t o i t s 1 9 2 m
e m
b e r s t a t e s .
w o rm in fe s ta tio n
S e v e r a l w o r m s , o r t h e i r l a r v a e , e x i s t i n g a s
p a r a s i t e s o f h u m a n s . T h e y m a y l i v e i n t h e
i n t e s t i n e s , b l o o d ,
l y m p h a t i c s y s t e m ,
b i l e
d u c t s , o r i n o r g a n s s u c h a s t h e l i v e r . I n
m a n y c a s e s , t h e y c a u s e f e w o r n o s y m p -
t o m s , b u t s o m e c a u s e c h r o n i c i l l n e s s . T h e
t w o
m a i n
c l a s s e s
a r e :
ro u n d w o rm s
a n d
p la ty h e lm in th s,
w i t h s u b d i v i s i o n s , c e s t o d e s
( t a p e w o r m s ) a n d t r e m a t o d e s ( f l u k e s ) .
W
o r m
d i s e a s e s
o c c u r r i n g
i n
d e v e l -
o p e d
c o u n t r i e s
i n c l u d e
th re a d w o rm
in fe s t a t io n , a s c a r ia s is , w h ip w o rm in fe s t a -
t io n , t o x o c a ria s is ,
l i v e r - f l u k e
i n f e s t a t i o n ,
a n d v a r i o u s
ta p e w o rm in fe s t a t io n s .
T h o s e
o c c u r r i n g i n t r o p i c a l r e g i o n s i n c l u d e , i n
a d d i t i o n ,
h o o k w o rm in fe s ta tio n , f ila r ia s is ,
g u in e a w o rm d is e a s e ,
a n d
s c h is t o s o m ia s is .
W
o r m s
m a y
b e
a c q u i r e d
b y
e a t i n g
u n d e r c o o k e d , i n f e c t e d m e a t , c o n t a c t w i t h
s o i l o r w a t e r c o n t a i n i n g w o r m l a r v a e , o r
a c c i d e n t a l i n g e s t i o n o f w o r m e g g s f r o m
s o i l
c o n t a m i n a t e d
b y
i n f e c t e d
f a e c e s .
M
o s t i n f e s t a t i o n s c a n b e e a s i l y e r a d i c a -
t e d w i t h
a n th e lm in tic d ru g s .
w o u n d
A n y d a m a g e t o t h e s k i n a n d / o r u n d e r -
l y i n g t i s s u e s c a u s e d b y a n a c c i d e n t , a c t o f
v i o l e n c e , o r s u r g e r y . W
o u n d s i n w h i c h
t h e s k i n o r m u c o u s m e m b r a n e i s b r o -
k e n a r e c a l l e d “ o p e n ” ; t h o s e i n w h i c h
t h e y r e m a i n i n t a c t , f o r e x a m p l e b r u i s e s ,
a r e t e r m e d “ c l o s e d ” .
W
o u n d s c a n b e d i v i d e d i n t o t h e f o l -
l o w i n g
c a t e g o r i e s : a n
i n c i s e d
w o u n d ;
a n
a b r a s i o n
( o r
g r a z e ) ;
a
la c e ra tio n ;
a
p e n e t r a t i n g w o u n d ; a n d a
c o n t u s io n
( s e e
T y p e s o f w o u n d s
b o x , o v e r l e a f ) .
w o u n d in fe c tio n
A n y t y p e o f
w o u n d
i s s u s c e p t i b l e t o t h e
e n t r y o f b a c t e r i a ; t h e r e s u l t a n t i n f e c t i o n
m a y
d e l a y
h e a l i n g ,
r e s u l t i n
d i s a b i l i t y ,
a n d
e v e n
c a u s e
d e a t h .
I n f e c t i o n
o f a
w o u n d
i s i n d i c a t e d
b y
r e d n e s s , s w e l l -
i n g , w a r m t h , p a i n , a n d , s o m e t i m e s , b y
t h e p r e s e n c e o f p u s o r t h e f o r m
a t i o n o f
a n
a b s c e s s .
I n f e c t i o n m a y s p r e a d l o c a l l y ,
t o a d j a c e n t o r g a n s o r t i s s u e , o r t o m o r e
d i s t a n t p a r t s o f t h e b o d y v i a t h e b l o o d .
T h e t y p e o f i n f e c t i o n d e p e n d s u p o n
h o w t h e w o u n d o c c u r r e d . F o r e x a m p l e ,
a w o u n d i n c o n t a c t w i t h s o i l c a n c a u s e
te ta n u s.
S t a p h y l o c o c c a l b a c t e r i a , i n c l u d -
i n g
M R S A ,
c o m
m o n l y i n f e c t w o u n d s .
DRUGS TO TREAT WORM INFESTATIONS
Drugs such as those listed below are the main treatment for worm infestations. Usually
just one or two doses are required but sometimes longer treatment is needed. Laxatives
may also be given to aid expulsion of worms living in the intestines.
Infestation
Drug
Threadworm
Mebendazole, piperazine
Common roundworm (ascariasis)
Mebendazole, piperazine
Whipworm
Mebendazole
Hookworm
Mebendazole
Strongyloidiasis
Tiabendazole, albendazole, ivermectin
Toxoca riasis
Diethylcarbamazine, tiabendazole
Tapeworm
Niclosamide, praziquantel
Filariasis
Diethylcarbamazine, ivermectin
Schistosomiasis
Praziquantel
W
807
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