WRINKLE
W
TYPES OF WOUNDS
Wounds can be divided into the following categories: incised wounds, in which
the skin is cleanly cut (e.g. surgical incision); abrasion (or grazes), in which
surface tissue is scraped away; lacerations, in which the skin is torn (e.g. animal
bites); contusions, in which the underlying tissues are damaged by a blunt
instrument; and penetrating wounds (e.g. stab or gunshot wounds).
y f ■■
\
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t f l
Abrasion
Abrasions usually result from sliding falls and
may contain dirt. They should be carefully
cleaned and dressed.
Contusion
Although the skin remains intact in this type of
wound (caused, here, by a seat belt), there may
be damage to the underlying tissues.
Penetration wound
A penetrating wound (here, a stab wound) may
appear small, butthe knife may have punctured
organs deep in the body.
Laceration
Such wounds are usually cleaned and then left
open to heal. Antibiotic and antitetanus
treatment maybe given.
Once infection is discovered, a sample
of pus or blood may be taken and the
patient is given an
a n t ib io t ic d r u g
.
An
abscess should be drained surgically.
w rin k le
A furrow in the skin.W rinkles are a nat-
ural feature of ageing. W rinkling is the
result of loss of skin elasticity. Prema-
ture deep wrinkling is usually caused by
overexposure to sunlight, and to smoking.
No treatment of wrinkles can restore
the skin’s elasticity permanently. H ow -
ever,
some
v ita m in A
derivatives
are
believed to reduce wrinkling. A
fa c e -lift
smoothes out wrinkles by stretching
the skin, but the effects last for only
about five years.
w ris t
The joint between the
h a n d
and the arm
that allows the hand to be bent forward
and backward relative to the arm and
also to be moved side to side.
The
wrist
contains
eight
bones
(known
collectively
as
the
carpus),
arranged in two rows, one articulating
with the forearm bones, and the other
connecting to the bones of the palm.
Tendons connect the forearm muscles
to the fingers and thumb, and arteries
and nerves supply the muscles, bones,
and skin of the hand and fingers.
DISORDERS
W rist injuries may lead to disability by
lim iting hand movement. A common
injury in adults is
C o lle s ’ fra c tu re ,
in
w hich the lower end of the radius is
fractured and the hand is
displaced
backwards. In young children, similar
displacement
results
from
a
fracture
through the epiphysis (growing end) of
the radius. A
s p r a in
can affect ligaments
at the wrist joint, but most are not
severe. (See also
c a rp a l t u n n e l s y n d r o m e
;
o s te o a rt h ritis ; te n o s y n o v it is ; w ris t- d ro p .)
w ris t-d ro p
Inability to straighten the
w rist,
so that
the back of the hand cannot be brought
into line with the back of the forearm.,
causing weakness of grip.
W rist-drop is caused by damage to
the
ra d ia l n e rv e ,
either by prolonged
pressure in the armpit (see
c ru tc h p a ls y
)
or by fracture of the humerus (upper-
arm bone; see
h u m e ru s , fra c tu re o f ).
Treatment involves holding the wrist
straight. This may be achieved with a
splint, but if damage to the radial nerve
is permanent, the treatment is
a rt h ro d e -
s is
(surgical fusion) of the wrist bones.
w rite r’s c ra m p
See
c ra m p , w rite r’s
.
w ry n e c k
Abnormal tilting and twisting of the
head. It may be partly due to neck mus-
cle injury or spasm (see
t o rt ic o llis ).
STRUCTUREOFTHE WRIST
The wrist is a complexjoint that allows the hand to be bent forward and backward
relative to the arm (through an angle of almost 180 degrees) and also moved side
to side (through about 70 degrees).
Site of movement
Movement occurs mainly at
the interface between the
radius in the forearm and
three closely bound wrist
bones - the triquetral, lunate,
and scaphoid.
Trapezoid
Capitate
Hamate
Pisiform
Ulna
Trapezium
Scaphoid
Radius
Lunate
Triquetral
Left wrist
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