ZAFIRLUKAST
z a firlu k a s t
A
le u k o t rie n e re c e p t o r a n ta g o n is t
that is
used in the prevention of
a s th m a
.
Z a n ta c
A brand name for
r a n it id in e
,
an H 2-rec-
eptor antagonist (see
u lc e r-h e a lin g d r u g s
)
that is used in the treatment of
p e p t ic
u lc e r
and
o e s o p h a g it is
.
z id o v u d in e
An
a n tire tro v ira l d r u g
,
(formerly known
as azidothymidine, or
A Z T
)
used in com-
bination with other antiretroviral drugs
to slow the progression of
A ID S
.
Zidovu-
dine was the first drug to be introduced
to combat
H IV
infection. Antiretrovirals
do not constitute a cure; their principal
aim is to keep viral replication to as low
a level as possible for as long as possible.
Possible side effects include
a n a e m ia
,
w hich may be severe enough to require
a blood transfusion;
nausea;
loss
of
appetite; headache; and a reduced num -
ber of
w h ite b lo o d c e lls
in the blood.
ZIFT
See
z y g o te in t ra fa llo p ia n tra n sfer.
z in c
A
tra ce e le m e n t
that is essential for normal
growth, development of the reproductive
organs, normal functioning of the pros-
tate gland, manufacture of
p ro t e in s
and
n u c le ic a c id s
, and healing of wounds, in
the body. Zinc also controls the activities
of more than 100 enzymes and is invol-
ved in the functioning of the hormone
in s u lin
.
Rich sources of zinc include lean
meat, seafood, dried beans, wholemeal
breads, and wholegrain cereals.
DEFICIENCY
Zinc deficiency is rare. Most cases occur
in people who are generally malnour-
ished. Deficiency of zinc may also be
due to any disorder that causes
m a la b -
s o r p t io n
;
a c ro d e rm a titis e n t e ro p a t h ic a
(a
disorder of zinc absorption); or increased
zinc requirements caused by cell dam-
age (for example, as a result of a burn
or in
s ic k le c e ll a n a e m ia
).
Symptoms of deficiency include taste
impairment and appetite loss; there may
also be hair loss and inflammation of
the skin, mouth, tongue, and eyelids. In
children, zinc deficiency impairs growth
and delays sexual development.
EXCESS
Prolonged excessive intake of zinc may
interfere with the intestinal absorption
of
iro n
and
c o p p e r
,
leading to a defici-
ency of these minerals.
MEDICAL USES
Zinc compounds, such as
z in c o x id e
,
are
included in many preparations for treat-
ing skin and scalp disorders.
intestine). Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is
caused by one or more gastrin-secreting
tumours, which usually arise in the
p a n -
c r e a s
but occasionally develop in the
stomach or duodenum. Gastrin stimu-
lates production of large quantities of
acid by the stomach, leading to ulcera-
tion. The high levels of acid in the
digestive tract often also cause diarrhoea.
The tumours are often cancerous but
are slow-growing. If possible, they are
removed surgically.
P ro to n p u m p in h ib it o r
drugs are given to treat the ulcers.
z o lm itrip ta n
A
s e ro t o n in a g o n is t
that is used in the
treatment of acute attacks of
m ig r a in e
.
z o lp id e m
A drug used in the short-term treat-
ment of
in s o m n ia
.
Zolpidem causes little
hangover effect. Possible side effects in-
clude diarrhoea, nausea, and dizziness.
z o n a p e llu c id a
The thick, transparent, noncellular layer
that surrounds a developing egg cell
in the ovarian follicle. At the time of
f e r t iliz a t io n
,
the zona pellucida is pene-
trated by at least one sperm.
z in c o x id e
An ingredient of many skin preparations
that has a m ild
a s trin g e n t
action and a
soothing effect. Zinc oxide is used for
painful, itchy, or moist skin conditions
and to ease pain due to haemorrhoids and
insect bites or stings. It also blocks the
sun’s ultraviolet rays (see
s u n s c r e e n s ).
Z o llin g e r-E llis o n s y n d ro m e
A rare condition characterized by severe
and recurrent
p e p t ic u lc e rs
in the stom-
ach and the duodenum and jejunum
(first and middle sections of the small
SELECTED ZOONOSES (DISEASES CAUGHT FROM ANIMALS)
With the exception of fungal infections and mites caught from pets, all the diseases
listed below are rare or unknown in the UK. Several may be caught from animals used
as food (pigs and cows, for example), but such diseases occur mainly where food
hygiene regulations and/or practices are lax. Rabies can be caught from various
animals in addition to those listed (foxes, skunks, and mongooses, for example).
Animal
Disease
Animal
Disease
Bat
Histoplasmosis
Rabies
Horse
• Glanders
Cat
Toxoplasmosis
Cat-scratch fever
Fungal infections
Pig
• Trichinosis
• Pork tapeworm
• Brucellosis
Chicken
Salmonella infection
Psittacosis
Rabbit
• Tularaemia
Cow
Brucellosis
Beeftapeworm
Q fever
Cowpox
Rat
• Leptospirosis
Dog
Rabies
Toxocariasis
Mite infestations
Fungal infections
Sheep
• Liver fluke
• Anthrax
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