ZYGOTE INTRAFALLOPIAN TRANSFER
TECHNIQUE OF Z-PLASTY
This relatively simple plastic surgery technique is carried out to revise unsightly
scars or to relieve skin tension caused by scar contracture. It can be particularly
useful for dealing with facial scars or scars that cross natural skin creases.
1
Three incisions are made, forming a Z.
The central incision is made lengthwise
through the scar.
2
Two triangular flaps are developed by
cutting skin away from underlying tissue,
and the flaps are then transposed.
3
This manoeuvre creates a new Z, of which
the central arm is at right angles to the
original direction of the scar.
4
The flaps are sutured in place. With careful
planning, the suture lines can be hidden in
natural skin creases.
z o o n o s is
A n y i n f e c t i o u s o r p a r a s i t i c d i s e a s e a f f e c -
t i n g a n i m a l s t h a t c a n b e t r a n s m i t t e d t o
h u m a n s .
U n l i k e
m a n y
d i s e a s e
o r g a n -
i s m s ,
z o o n o t i c
o r g a n i s m s
a r e
f l e x i b l e ,
a n d t h e y c a n a d a p t t h e m s e l v e s t o a l a r g e
n u m b e r o f d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s .
Z o o n o s e s
a r e
u s u a l l y
c a u g h t
f r o m
a n i m a l s t h a t a r e c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h
h u m a n s , e i t h e r a s p e t s , a s f o o d s o u r c e s ,
o r a s s c a v e n g i n g p a r a s i t e s , s u c h a s r a t s .
E x a m p l e s o f s u c h z o o n o s e s i n c l u d e
to x-
o c a r ia s is , c a t-sc ra tc h fe v e r,
s o m e
f u n g a l
in fe c tio n s ,
p s it t a c o s is ,
b r u c e llo s is ,
t ric h -
in o s is ,
a n d
le p t o s p ir o s is . R a b ie s
c a n i n f e c t
v i r t u a l l y a n y m a m m a l , b u t d o g b i t e s a r e
a c o m
m o n c a u s e o f z o o n o s i s i n f e c t i o n
i n h u m a n s w o r l d w i d e .
O t h e r z o o n o s e s a r e t r a n s m i t t e d f r o m
a n i m a l s
l e s s
o b v i o u s l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h
h u m a n s ,
u s u a l l y b y i n s e c t
v e c to rs .
F o r
e x a m p l e ,
y e llo w f e v e r
i s t r a n s m i t t e d b y
m o s q u i t o b i t e s .
( S e e a l s o
ca ts, d is e a s e s
f r o m
;
d o g s , d is e a s e s f r o m
;
in s e c t s a n d d is -
e a s e
;
ra ts, d is e a s e s f ro m .)
z o p ic lo n e
A d r u g t h a t i s u s e d i n t h e s h o r t - t e r m
t r e a t m e n t o f
in s o m n ia .
Z o p i c l o n e h a s a
b r i e f d u r a t i o n o f a c t i o n a n d c a u s e s l i t t l e
h a n g o v e r e f f e c t . B e c a u s e o f t h e r i s k o f
d e p e n d e n c e , z o p i c l o n e i s i n t e n d e d f o r
o c c a s i o n a l u s e o n l y . P o s s i b l e s i d e e f f e c t s
o f t h e
d r u g
i n c l u d e
a
b i t t e r
m e t a l l i c
t a s t e , n a u s e a , a n d a d r y m o u t h .
Z o v ira x
A b r a n d n a m e f o r
a c ic lo v ir,
a n
a n tiv ira l
d ru g
u s e d t o t r e a t v i r a l i n f e c t i o n s s u c h
a s
h e r p e s s im p le x ,
h e r p e s z o s te r,
a n d
s o m e c a s e s o f
c h ic k e n p o x .
Z -p la sty
A t e c h n i q u e t h a t i s u s e d i n
p la s t ic s u r -
g e r y
t o c h a n g e t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a p r e -
e x i s t i n g s c a r i n o r d e r f o r i t t o b e h i d d e n
w i t h i n t h e n a t u r a l c r e a s e s o f t h e s k i n .
Z - p l a s t y i s a l s o u s e d t o r e l i e v e s k i n t e n -
s i o n o c c u r r i n g a s a r e s u l t o f
c o n tra c tu re
o f a
s c a r . T h e
t e c h n i q u e
i s
e s p e c i a l l y
u s e f u l f o r r e v i s i n g u n s i g h t l y s c a r s o n t h e
f a c e
a n d
f o r
r e l e a s i n g
s c a r r i n g
a c r o s s
j o i n t s , s u c h a s o n t h e f i n g e r s o r i n t h e
a r m p i t s , t h a t m a y r e s t r i c t n o r m a l m o v e -
m
e n t o r c a u s e d e f o r m i t y .
Z yb a n
A b r a n d n a m e f o r
a m fe b u ta m o n e
, a d r u g
t h a t i s u s e d , a l o n g w i t h s e l f - h e l p m
e a -
s u r e s , a s a n a i d t o s t o p p i n g s m o k i n g .
z y g o m a tic a rch
T h e a r c h o f b o n e , c o m
m o n l y k n o w n a s
t h e c h e e k b o n e ,
o n e i t h e r s i d e
o f t h e
s k u ll
j u s t
b e l o w
t h e
e y e
s o c k e t .
T h e
z y g o m a t i c a r c h i s f o r m e d o f t h e z y g o -
m a t i c a n d t e m p o r a l b o n e s .
z y g o te
T h e c e l l t h a t i s p r o d u c e d w h e n a
s p e r m
f e r t i l i z e s a n
o v u m
( e g g ) . A z y g o t e , m e a -
s u r i n g
a b o u t
0 . 1 m m
i n
d i a m e t e r
i n
h u m a n s ,
c o n t a i n s a l l t h e g e n e t i c m a t -
e r i a l f o r a n e w i n d i v i d u a l . T h e z y g o t e i s
s u r r o u n d e d
b y
a
p r o t e i n - r i c h
l a y e r
k n o w n a s t h e
z o n a p e llu c id a
.
T h e z y g o t e t r a v e l s d o w n o n e o f t h e
w o m
a n ’s
fa llo p ia n t u b e s ,
d i v i d i n g
a s i t
d o e s s o . A f t e r a b o u t a w e e k , t h e m a s s o f
c e l l s ( n o w c a l l e d a b l a s t o c y s t ) i m p l a n t s
i n t o
t h e l i n i n g
o f t h e u t e r u s ,
a n d t h e
n e x t
s t a g e
o f
e m b r y o l o g i c a l
g r o w t h
b e g i n s . ( S e e a l s o
e m b ry o ; f e rt iliz a t io n .)
Appearance of a zygote
The photograph shows a human egg shortly after
it has been fertilized by a sperm. The two circular
areas at the centre of the image are the nuclei of
the sperm and egg merging.
z y g o te in tra fa llo p ia n tra n s fe r
A t y p e o f
in v itro fe rtiliz a t io n ,
a l s o r e f e r -
r e d t o a s Z I F T , i n w h i c h
o v a
( e g g s ) a r e
f e r t i l i z e d o u t s i d e t h e b o d y a n d r e t u r n e d
t o a
fa llo p ia n tu b e
r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e
u te ru s
.
Z
815
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