BEHAVIOURAL PROBLEMS IN CHILDREN
Beclometasone is also prescribed in the
form of a cream or as an ointment to
treat inflammation of the skin resulting
from
eczema.
beclomethasone
The former name for the corticosteroid
drug
beclometasone.
Beconase
A brand name for a nasal spray that
contains the corticosteroid drug
beclo-
metasone.
Beconase is used to treat hay
fever (see
rhinitis, allergic)
and also some
other nasal allergies.
Becotide
A brand name for an inhaled form of
the corticosteroid drug
beclometasone
that is used to treat
asthma
.
becquerel
A unit of radioactivity (see
radiation
units
).
bed bath
A method of washing a bedridden per-
son. A small area is washed and dried at
a time, while the rest of the body is kept
covered to prevent chilling.
bedbug
A flat, wingless, brown insect that is
about 5 mm long and 3 mm wide. Bed-
bugs live in furniture and furnishings,
especially in beds and carpets, emerging
at night to feed on humans by sucking
their blood. Bedbugs are not known to
transmit disease, but their bites are
itchy and they may develop into sores
that become infected.
bedpan
A metal, plastic, or fibre container into
which a patient can defaecate or urinate
without getting out of bed.
bed rest
A term used to describe periods spent
in bed. Bed rest is sometimes part of the
treatment for certain illnesses, such as
rheumatic fever,
and for some types of
injury, such as a fractured vertebra.
Prolonged bed rest carries risks such
as muscle wasting,
bedsores,
and devel-
opment of blood clots in the legs. Bed
rest was once considered an essential
part of the treatment of many common
conditions, but it is now avoided when
possible. Patients are usually encouraged
to be mobile as soon as they are able
following illness or surgery.
PREVENTING BEDSORES
Once a bedsore has developed it
will heal only if pressure on it is
minimized, so good nursing care of
a bedridden or immobile patient is
crucial. The patient’s position should
be changed at least every two hours;
and it is important to wash and dry
pressure areas carefully, especially if
there is incontinence. Barrier creams
can be used for additional protection.
Common sites
These include the
shoulders, elbows,
lower back, hips and
buttocks, knees, ankles,
and heels.
bedridden
A term used to describe a person who is
unable to leave bed due to illness or
injury. People most likely to be bedrid-
den are the very elderly, the terminally
ill, and those paralysed as the result of
an accident.
bedsore
Also known as a decubitus ulcer or
pressure sore, an ulcer that forms on the
skin of patients who are unconscious or
immobile. Common sites for bedsores
include the shoulders, elbows, lower
back, hips, buttocks, ankles, and heels.
CAUSES
Bedsores may develop following a
stroke
or
spinal injuries
that result in loss of
sensation. Incontinence (see
incontinence,
urinary),
if it results in constantly wet
skin, may also be a causative factor.
SYMPTOMS
Bedsores start as red, painful areas that
become purple before the skin starts to
break down, producing open sores. At
this stage, the sores may become infected
and take a long time to heal.
TREATMENT AND PREVENTION
Deep, chronic
ulcers
may require treat-
ment with
antibiotic drugs
and, in some
cases,
plastic surgery.
Good nursing care,
including changing the patient’s posi-
tion regularly, skin care, protection of
vulnerable areas, and use of cushions
and special mattresses, should prevent
bedsores from developing in most cases.
bedwetting
The common name for poor bladder
control at night (see
enuresis, nocturnal
).
bee stings
See
insect stings.
behavioural problems
in children
Behavioural problems range from mild
and short-lived periods of unacceptable
behaviour, which are common in most
children, to more severe problems such
as conduct disorders and refusal to go
to school. Behavioural problems may
occasionally occur in any child; special-
ist management is called for when the
problems become frequent and disrupt
school and/or family life. Some behavi-
oural problems can occur whatever the
family or home situation of the child. In
some cases, however, stressful external
events, such as moving home or parental
divorce, may produce periods of prob-
lem behaviour.
Behavioural problems that are com-
mon in young children include sleeping
problems, such as waking repeatedly
in the night. In toddlers,
breath-holding
attacks, tantrums,
separation anxiety, and
head-banging
are problems best dealt
with by a consistent and controlled
approach. Problems with
toilet-training
BEHAVIOURAL PROBLEMS
BY AGE
Babies up to
18
months
Sleeping and feeding difficulties,
colic, crying
Toddlersand children
1 -4
years
Head-banging, tantrums, biting, breath-
holding attacks, separation anxiety, poor
social interaction, difficulty in changing
from one activity to another, toilet
training problems
Early childhood
4 - 8
years
Nail-biting, thumb-sucking, aggression,
clinginess, anxiety about illness and
death, nightmare, enuresis
Middle childhood/adolescence
9 -1 8
years
Lying, stealing, smoking, truancy,
disobedience, aggression, low
achievement in school, drug or alcohol
use, running away, sexual promiscuity
B
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