CAVERNOUS SINUS THROMBOSIS
The main symptom, appearing three to
ten days after the bite or scratch, is a
near the affected
area. The node may become painful and
tender, and an infected blister
develop at the site of the injury. A fever,
rash, and headache may occur.
DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
Diagnosis of cat-scratch fever is con-
(removal of a small
sample of tissue for microscopic analy-
sis) of the swollen lymph node and by a
may be used to relieve the fever and
headache. In most cases, the illness clears
up completely within two months.
cats, diseases from
Cats carry various parasites and infec-
tious organisms that can be spread to
humans. Some of these are specific to
cats; others may also affect dogs.
The most serious disease that can be
contracted from an infected cat is
Anyone who is bitten by a cat (or
any other animal) in a country where
rabies is present should seek medical
advice without delay.
is an uncommon ill-
ness that is caused by infection with
the bacterium B
lowing a scratch or bite from a cat.
Cats commonly carry the
(single-celled parasite) T
w hich causes the disease
Infection with the parasite, w hich is
usually from contact with a cat’s faeces,
is not generally serious, but it can have
Infections in early pregnancy can lead
or severe malformation of
the fetus. Later in pregnancy, infections
can result in nervous system disorders
in the fetus and may even lead to blind-
ness in early childhood.
Cat faeces may also carry eggs of the
cat roundworm, a possible cause of
ingested roundworm egg migrates to
and lodges in an eye, causing deteriora-
tion of vision or blindness. Children
who have been playing in sand or soil
that has been contaminated by cat fae-
ces are at risk of coming into contact
with the worm eggs.
Other cat-related disorders in humans
(fungal infections of the
skin, hair, or nails), particularly ring-
worm, (ringlike fungal patches, often
on the scalp), bites from cat fleas, and
allergic reactions to dander (scales from
animal skin, hair, or feathers) that may
Diseases from cats can be avoided by
good hygiene, such as hand-washing,
particularly after touching a cat. All pets
should have regular worm ing and flea
treatment and veterinary care if ill.
A “spray’’ of nerve roots resembling a
and occupies the lower
third of the spinal canal.
This word is used to refer to the lower
end of the
The word “caudal”
means “of the tail” .
A type of
in w hich a local
anaesthetic is injected into the lower
part of the spinal canal (the central
space w ithin the spine). Caudal block
may be used to anaesthetize the but-
tocks and genitals as part of
and gynaecological procedures.
Painful, swollen distortion of the pinna
(ear flap) resulting from blows or fric-
tion that have caused bleeding in the
of the ear.
Immediate treatment following an
injury involves the use of ice-packs to
reduce the swelling. In severe cases, a
doctor may drain blood from the ear
and apply a pressure bandage.
A f f e c t e d
a r e a
the ear, there has
been bleeding into
the soft cartilage.
The ear flap has
been deformed, with
loss ofthe normal
folds of skin.
A persistent, burning pain, usually in
an arm or leg. Causalgia most often
occurs as a result of injury to a nerve
by a deep cut, lim b
wound. The skin overlying the painful
area may be red and tender, or blue,
cold, and clammy. The condition may
be aggravated by light sensations, such
as touch, or by emotional factors.
In some cases, treatment with
effective. A few people benefit from
in w hich nerves supply-
ing the affected area are severed.
Describes substances that have a burn-
ing or corrosive action on body tissues
or a burning taste. An example is caus-
tic soda, the common name for sodium
hydroxide. Caustic agents such as silver
nitrate are used to destroy warts.
The application of a heated instrument
to destroy tissues, stop bleeding, or pro-
mote healing. Cauterization may be used
to treat conditions such as
It has been
largely replaced by
of high-frequency electric current and,
increasingly, laser to seal blood vessels).
A brand name for preparations of
used to treat
impotence, normally by self-injection.
cavernous sinus thrombosis
Blockage of a venous
for venous blood located deep inside
the skull behind an eye socket) by a
Cavernous sinus thrombosis is usually a
complication of a bacterial infection in
an area drained by the veins entering
the sinus. At first, only the veins behind
one eye are affected, but w ithin a few
days the thrombosis may spread to the
sinus behind the other eye.
Among the infections that can lead to
cavernous sinus thrombosis are
(a severe skin infection) of the face,
infections of the mouth, eye, or middle
(infection of the air spaces
of the facial skull),
(infection in the bloodstream).
Symptoms of cavernous sinus thrombo-
sis include severe headache, high fever,
pain and loss of sensation in and above
the affected eye due to the pressure on
the fifth cranial nerve, and
(protrusion of the eyeball) due to swel-
ling around and behind the eye. In
some cases, vision may become blurred