COLON, DISORDERS OF
bowel movements (either constipation
or diarrhoea), blood mixed in with the
faeces, and pain in the lower abdomen.
symptoms until the tumour has grown
large enough to cause an obstruction
in the intestine (see
of) or perforate it (see
DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
Successful treatment of cancer of the
colon depends, crucially, on an early
diagnosis. Screening may be carried out
to detect early signs. This procedure
includes a test to detect blood hidden
in the faeces
faecal occult blood
If the test is positive, doctors may
to view the inside of the colon. A
may be performed at the same time.
In most cases, a partial
carried out. In this procedure, the dis-
eased part of the colon is removed,
together with a surrounding area of
healthy tissue, then the cut ends of the
colon are rejoined. Surgery may be
The chance of sur-
vival depends on how far the tumour
has spread, but colon cancer in its early
stages can be cured.
colon, disorders of
intestine, disorders of.
irritable bowel syndrome
The multiplication of foreign organ-
isms, such as
in a host body.
(This process is not necessarily harm-
ful.) The term “colonization” is also
used to refer to the development of
cells in an area to w hich they
have spread that is separate from the
prim ary tumour.
The viewing of the inside of the
using a flexible endoscope (fibre-optic
instrument) known as a colonoscope,
w hich is introduced through the
and guided along the colon. Colonos-
copy is used to investigate symptoms
such as bleeding from the anus and to
detect physical abnormalities such as
Instruments may be
passed through the colonoscope to take
or remove polyps.
irritable bowel syndrome
Colorado tick fever
A viral illness transmitted by the bites
mountain areas of the western United
States, usually in early summer. Symp-
3 - 6
days after a tick bite;
they include flulike chills and fever,
severe headache, nausea, and some-
times a red, raised rash. The illness
usually lasts for a few days, subsides,
then returns for a further few days. The
remain in the
blood for several months.
Treatment involves removal of the
tick as soon as possible and taking
Tick bites can be prevented by wearing
clothing that covers the arms and legs
and tucking trouser legs into socks.
ticks and disease
A general term referring to cancer of
the colon (see
colon, cancer of
of the rectum (see
rectum, cancer of
An operation in w hich part of the
is brought to the surface of the skin
through an incision in the abdominal
wall. The exposed part is formed into a
an artificial opening through
are discharged into a bag
attached to the skin. A colostomy may
be either temporary or permanent.
A temporary colostomy may be per-
formed at the same time as a partial
colon) to allow the remainder of the
colon to heal without faeces passing
through and contaminating it. The col-
ostomy is closed when the rejoined
colon has healed. A permanent colosto-
my is needed if the rectum or anus has
been removed (for example, to treat
colon cancer) and norm al defaecation
is therefore impossible.
A thick, yellowish fluid that is pro-
duced by the breasts during the first
few days after childbirth, before being
contains less fat and sugar, but more
minerals and protein, than breast milk.
It also has a high content of
w hich help to protect the
baby against infections.
PROCEDURE FOR COLOSTOMY
An incision is made in the abdominal
wall and part of the colon is pulled
through. In a temporary colostomy, a
small loop is exposed, and an opening
is made in it large enough for faeces to
pass through. If the rectum and anus
have been removed, the cut end of the
colon is brought to the skin surface.
The edges of the opening or severed
end are stitched to the skin at the
edges of the abdominal incision to
create a stoma (artificial opening)
through which faeces will be expelled.
N a v e l
Position of the stoma
A colostomy bag is attached over the stoma to
collect faeces. After a bowel movement, it is
either replaced or emptied.
L a r g e in t e s t i n e
P o s s i b l e s i t e s
o f c o l o s t o m y
o p e n i n g s
S m a l l i n t e s t in e
D i s e a s e d p a r t o f
r e c t u m r e m o v e d
V ; : f j / t
. : ' / '
v r* /
O p e n e n d o f
c o l o n b r o u g h t
t h r o u g h t o
s k i n s u r f a c e