EAR, EXAMINATION OF
In some cases, a doctor may deliberately
puncture the eardrum to drain pus from
the middle ear (see
DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
Diagnosis is confirmed by examination
of the ear (see
ear, examination of
may also be performed to assess
any hearing loss.
(painkillers) may help
to relieve any pain and
may be prescribed to treat or prevent
infection. Most perforations heal very
quickly, usually within a month. How -
ever, if the perforation has failed to heal
after about six months,
(an operation to repair the eardrum)
may be required.
ear, examination of
may be examined to investigate
the possible causes of
from the ear (see
ear, discharge from
hearing loss, a feeling of fullness in the
w ithin the ear), or swelling of lymph
below or in
front of the ear.
HOW IT IS DONE
The doctor begins by examining the
pinna (the visible part of the outer ear)
for any evidence of swelling, tender-
ness, ulceration, or deformity. To view
the ear canal and eardrum, an
(a viewing instrument for examining
the ear) may be used.
To obtain images of the middle and
(techniques that produce cross-sec-
tional or three-dimensional images of
body structures), may be carried out.
Hearing and balance can be assessed by
is a technique in
w hich balance is assessed by observing
the movements of the eye as water is
poured into the ear.
ear, foreign body in
Foreign bodies can easily enter the ear
canal. Children often insert small objects,
such as peas or stones, into their ears,
and insects may crawl or fly in.
If people try to remove objects from
the ear themselves, they may push the
items further into the ear canal and risk
damaging the eardrum. Foreign bodies
in the ear must always be removed by
doctors. This can be done by syringing
syringing of ears
) or by using fine-
Insects can sometimes
be floated out using warmed olive oil
or lukewarm water.
ear, nose, and throat surgery
Making a hole in the earlobe or another,
usually cartilaginous, part of the exter-
nal ear to accommodate an earring. Ear
piercings are best cleaned twice a day
with salt water. Earlobe piercing takes
about 4 weeks to heal; cartilage piercing
may take 8-12 weeks.
ears, pinning back of
called cerumen, produced by glands in
the outer ear canal. In most people,
wax is produced in small amounts,
comes out on its own, and causes no
problems. However, some people pro-
duce so much wax that it regularly
obstructs the canal. Excess earwax may
produce a sensation of fullness in the
ear and, if the canal is blocked com-
toms are worsened if water enters the
ear and makes the wax swell. Pro-
longed blockage may irritate the skin
of the ear canal.
Wax that causes blockage or irritation
may come out after being softened with
warmed olive oil or almond oil. Other-
wise, the wax should first be softened
and then removed by a doctor or nurse
syringing of the ears).
Illnesses that are characterized by obses-
sions with weight and body image.
Eating disorders are most common in
young adolescent females, but they can
also affect males.
In the eating disorder
patients, despite being painfully thin,
perceive themselves as fat and starve
themselves. Binge-eating followed by self-
induced vomiting is one of the main
although, in this dis-
order, weight may be normal. The two
conditions sometimes occur together. In
there is a constant desire
to eat large quantities of food.
A dangerous and highly contagious viral
infection that causes severe haemorrhag-
from the skin and the
(the thin, moist tis-
sue that lines body cavities). Ebola fever
occurs predominantly in Africa. There is
no specific treatment for the disease,
w hich is fatal in many cases.
The conversion of
into an ivorylike
that covers an articu-
lating bone surface wears away, exposing
becomes increasingly dense and worn.
Eburnation is a feature of
The medical term for a
that is vis-
ible through the skin.
A type of
The abbreviation for electrocardiogra-
phy, a method of recording the electrical
activity of the
muscle. An ECG is
useful for diagnosing heart disorders,
many of w hich produce electrical pat-
terns that deviate from normal. Electrodes
connected to a recording machine are
placed on the patient’s chest, wrists, and
ankles. The machine displays the heart’s
electrical activity on a screen or as a trace.
ambulatory ECG; exercise ECG.
A preparation of the plant genus E
. Three species of echinacea are
believed to boost the body’s
and therefore increase its resistance
to bacterial, viral, and fungal infections.
A method of obtaining an image of
the structure and movements of the
frequency sound waves).
WHY IT IS DONE
Echocardiography is a diagnostic tech-
nique that is used to detect structural,
and some functional, abnormalities of
the heart wall, heart chambers,
The procedure is also used to diag-
nose congenital heart disease (see
ing of the heart or blood vessel walls),
(inflammation of the mem-
brane that surrounds the heart), and
blood clots in the heart.