witnesses should make the surrounding
(for example, by removing
hazardous objects) and ensure that the
person can breathe w hile unconscious.
Clothing around the neck should be
loosened, and a soft item, such as a
of clothing, should be
witnesses should simply let the attack
run its course. Once the convulsions
the person should be
placed in the
restrained, and should never have any-
thing put into his or her mouth.
usually stop or
seizures. The drugs may have unpleasant
side effects, however, so the doctor w ill
take care to find the one drug that
works best for that patient. W ith very
severe epilepsy, a combination of drugs
may be needed to control seizures. If no
seizures occur after two or three years
of treatment, and depending on their
cause, the doctor may suggest reducing
or stopping the drug treatment.
pregnancy w ill need to have their treat-
ment reviewed before conceiving. They
may need to change to another drug to
reduce the risk of a fetal abnormality.
Stopping treatment is not usually an
option because seizures can be pro-
foundly damaging to the fetus.
Surgery may be considered if a sin-
gle area of damage to the brain is
causing the seizures and drug treat-
ment has not proved effective.
Epilepsy that develops during child-
hood may sometimes disappear soon
Affected adults can enjoy relatively
normal lives, but may be restricted in
their choice of work. For example, it is
inadvisable for people with epilepsy to
have occupations involving heights or
addition, there are certain restrictions
on driving vehicles (see
People with epilepsy are legally
required to contact their vehicle licens-
Many people with epilepsy carry a
special card, tag, or bracelet, such as
those produced by
Affected people should also advise their
family, friends, and colleagues what to
do if a seizure occurs.
An alternative name for
A brand name for an assembled needle
and syringe containing a dose of
rapid administration to prevent or treat
life-threatening allergic reactions
designed for people who are prone to
such reactions to use on themselves; it
delivers the adrenaline directly into a
muscle, usually a thigh muscle.
Anyone known to be at risk of an
anaphylactic reaction should carry an
EpiPen with them at all times and be
taught how to administer it. An affected
person’s family, as well as other close
contacts, such as teachers, colleagues,
and friends, should also be aware of
how to use the EpiPen.
A fracture (break) at the point where
the epiphysis (the end section of a long
bone) meets the diaphysis (the main
shaft of the bone). This type of break
may affect the subsequent growth of
the fractured bone.
The disc that separates the
end section of a long bone) from the
(the main shaft of the bone).
During the period of growth, the epi-
physeal plate is composed of
(connective tissue formed of collagen).
This cartilage is gradually replaced by
bone as a result of
by w hich cartilage cells multiply and
to develop into bone.
The end section of a long bone (such as
the femur in the legs, or the humerus in
the arms) that is separated from the dia-
physis (the main shaft of the bone) by
Problems that affect the epiphysis or
the epiphyseal plate during the period
of growth, such as inflammation
condition called epiphysitis), may retard
the growth of the affected bone and
cause it to become deformed.
femoral epiphysis, slipped
(white of the eye) in an area
immediately underneath the
(the transparent membrane that covers
Episcleritis is usually
cause and mainly affects middle-aged
men. It may, at times, be a complication
. T h e
may cause a dull, aching pain and there
ity of the eyes to light).
The disorder usually disappears by
itself within a week or so, but it may
recur. Symptoms may be relieved by
or ointment containing
A surgical procedure in w hich an inci-
sion is made in the
between the vagina and the anus) in